What is the TNT equivalent of a ton?
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion. The ton of TNT is a unit of energy defined by that convention to be 4.184 gigajoules, which is the approximate energy released in the detonation of a metric ton (1,000 kilograms) of TNT.
What is the equivalent of TNT in joules?
TNT equivalent. The “ton of TNT” is a unit of energy defined by that convention to be 4.184 gigajoules, which is the approximate energy released in the detonation of a metric ton (1,000 kilograms or one megagram) of TNT. In other words, for each gram of TNT exploded, 4,184 joules of energy are released.
What is the equivalent of stored energy in kilograms of TNT?
The equivalent Stored Energy in kilograms of TNT is Stored Energy in Joules is calculated using formula Stored Energy (E) = 2.5 * Pt * V [ 1 − (P a P t).286]….. as per equation II-2 from ASME PCC-2 Appendix 501-II.
How do you calculate the energy of TNT?
The calculation is based on air or nitrogen being used as test medium with specific heat ratio of k = 1.4. Stored Energy (E) = 2.5 * Pt * V [ 1 − ( P a P t) .286] ….. as per equation II-2 from ASME PCC-2 Appendix 501-II. TNT = S t o r e d E n e r g y 4, 266, 920 (kg) ….. as per equation II-3 from ASME PCC-2 Appendix 501-II
What is the equivalent mass of TNT?
Historical derivation of the value For TNT this has been accurately measured as 4686 J/g from a large sample of air blast experiments, and theoretically calculated to be 4853 J/g.
How powerful is C4 compared to TNT?
C4 explosives have more complete destructive power compared to TNT and the number of effective explosives required to destroy the concrete with the strength of fc = 229.31 kg / cm2 is 122 g.
How much does a ton of TNT cost?
This puts TNT at $10.4k/ton: very close to the $16.8k/ton marginal cost of an equivalent energy from Mark 3 nuclear weapons, and well below the average cost of Mark 3 nuclear weapons produced by the end of Operation Crossroads. Ammonium nitrate is about half as energy dense as TNT, suggesting a price of about $5.6k/T.
How many joules are in a stick of TNT?
A stick of dynamite thus produced contains roughly 1 MJ (megajoule) of energy.
What is the strongest non nuclear bomb?
MOABThe bomb is reportedly similar to the US military’s GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast which is often unofficially called “Mother of All Bombs” derived from its official military acronym “MOAB”. This weapon would therefore be the most powerful conventional (non-nuclear) weapon in the world.
How much TNT is in a grenade?
Offensive hand grenades provide blast effects. They are of cylindrical shape and are loaded with approximately one-half pound of flaked TNT.
How big is a 50 megaton explosion?
about 3 miles(To put it into perspective: The fireball for a 50-megaton weapon has a radius of about 3 miles.
How many nukes would it take to destroy the US?
So only Russia can destroy the United States because they have 4200 nuclear bombs compared to 4000 for the United States.
How many tons of TNT was Hiroshima?
15,000 tonsThe bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, August 6, 1945, at 8:15 AM. A B-29 dropped the bomb from 31,000 feet. The bomb exploded about 1,500 feet above the city with a force of 15,000 tons of TNT.
How powerful is a stick of TNT?
The force of different varieties may vary 30 to 40 percent, but a properly placed standard stick can blast a 12‐inch tree stump from the ground.
What is in Semtex?
One of the well-known ternary PBXs, still from the period of Vietnam War, is Semtex 1H from the assortment of the Czech company Explosia. It is a high performance plastic explosive containing a mixture of RDX and PETN bonded by plasticized SBR rubber .
How much force is a stick of dynamite?
Straight Dynamite – Nitroglycerin in an absorbent, with velocities between 10,000 and 20,000 feet per second. This dynamite is the most sensitive of all commercial explosives. The weight strength is the actual percentage of nitroglycerin in the cartridge.
What is the most powerful explosive in the world?
HMX is the most powerful high explosive produced in industrial quantities today. It is a relatively insensitive, temperature-stable and safe-to-handle high explosive that makes it useful in a variety of applications both in military and civilian end products.
What is the most powerful plastic explosive?
It was concluded that PEX-1 has compatible ingredients, it has the highest detonation velocity of all the studied plastic explosives, and its sensitivity is in the same level of the studied plastic explosives except Semtex 1A.
Is Semtex the same as C4?
Semtex is a very powerful explosive device, similar to C4. It was developed in Czechoslovakia. Because of its similarities, it was nicknamed the “Terrorist’s C4” during the Cold War. The explosive is made with mainly RDX and PETN, in addition with numerous binders and stabilizers.
What makes the biggest explosion in Minecraft?
1) Wither. Before the warden arrives, the wither is arguably the strongest and most dangerous mob in Minecraft. In Bedrock Edition, the wither causes an explosion of power level 7 when spawned. It explodes again after dropping to 50% health.
How to change unit in TNT?
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How to convert TNT to kilo?
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What is natural unit?
In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement based only on universal physical constants. The origin of their definition comes only from properties of nature and not from any human construct.
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What is the TNT equivalency model?
The TNT equivalency model is based on the assumption of equivalence between the flammable material and TNT, factored by an etq>losion dency term … [Pg.134]
What method does TNT use?
The company uses the TNT equivalence method for screening purposes and the Baker-Strehlow methodology to model blast effects for more in-depth studies. The hazard classifications are as follows … [Pg.118]
What is the complicating factor in the use of a TNT blast model for vapor cloud explosion blast modeling?
One of the complicating factors in the use of a TNT-blast model for vapor cloud explosion blast modeling is the effect of distance on the TNT equivalency observed in actual incidents. Properly speaking, TNT blast characteristics do not correspond with gas explosion blast. That is, far-field gas explosion blast effects must be represented by much heavier TNT charges than intermediate distances. [Pg.121]
What is the largest potential error with the TNT equivalency model?
The largest potential error with the TNT equivalency model is the choice of an explosion efficiency. One needs to ensute that the yield corresponds with the correct mass of fuel. An efficiency range of 1-10% affects predicted distances to… [Pg.151]
What is the yield factor of a vapour cloud explosion?
If the consequences of the vapour cloud explosion are to be assessed using the TNT equivalent model this is accounted for, contrary to an explosive, by a yield factor a < 1. Different experience – based values are quoted for the yield factor. The range lies between 0.0002 and 0.2 occasionally even higher values are given . The differences show that the yield factor is a quantity which strongly depends on the (not foreseeable) boundary conditions of release and explosion. For practical calculations a value of a = 0.2 is recommended. It is the upper bound of the indicated region. The duration of the positive phase of a vapoiu cloud explosion (t in Fig. 10.31), which is the only one to be treated with the TNT equivalent model, amounts to 100-300 ms. [Pg.534]
What is Figure 10.38?
Figure 10.38 shows several of the preceding calculations comparing models and different situations of confinement. Whilst the latter cannot be accounted for by the TNT equivalent model, judging the degree of confinement introduces a subjective element into the treatment with the TNO and BST models. The curves show that this judgment can considerably influence the results, particularly in the near field. [Pg.550]
How big can a CDC T-10 handle?
The CDC T-10 model tested in Belgium can treat complete chemical munitions up to 105-mm in diameter. A larger mobile unit (TC-25) was tested extensively at Porton Down, England (Blades et al., 2004) (see Figure 4-1). A still larger unit (TC-60) with an explosive capacity of 60 pounds of TNT-equivalent is now available (Bixler, 2005). It can handle munitions over 200 mm in diameter, according to the manufacturer. Table 4-1 provides the dimensions of the pressure chambers for the three CDC models. [Pg.50]
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion. The tonne of TNT is a unit of energy defined by that convention to be 4.184 gigajoules, which is the approximate energy released in the detonation of a metric ton (1,000 kilograms) of TNT. In other words, for each gram of TNT exploded, 4.184 kilojoules (or 4184 joules) of ener…
Kiloton and megaton
The “kiloton (of TNT)” is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 terajoules (4.184×10 J).
The “megaton (of TNT)” is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 petajoules (4.184×10 J).
The kiloton and megaton of TNT have traditionally been used to describe the energy output, and hence the destructive power, of a nuclear weapon. The TNT equivalent appears in various nuclear weapon control treaties, and has been used to characterize the energy released in asteroid impa…
Historical derivation of the value
Alternative values for TNT equivalency can be calculated according to which property is being compared and when in the two detonation processes the values are measured.
Where for example the comparison is by energy yield, an explosive’s energy is normally expressed for chemical purposes as the thermodynamic work produced by its detonation. For TNT this has been accurately measured as 4686 J/g from a large sample of air blast experiments, and theoret…
Conversion to other units
1 ton TNT equivalent is approximately:
• 1.0×10 calories
• 4.184×10 joules
• 3.96831×10 British thermal units
• 3.086×10 foot-pounds
Relative effectiveness factor
The relative effectiveness factor (RE factor) relates an explosive’s demolition power to that of TNT, in units of the TNT equivalent/kg (TNTe/kg). The RE factor is the relative mass of TNT to which an explosive is equivalent: The greater the RE, the more powerful the explosive.
This enables engineers to determine the proper masses of different explosives when applying blasting formulas developed specifically for TNT. For example, if a timber-cutting formula calls f…
• Net explosive quantity
• Nuclear weapon yield
• Orders of magnitude (energy)
• Relative effectiveness factor