# The Equivalent

## What is dose equivalent?

The NRC’s definition of dose equivalent is “the product of the absorbed dose in tissue, quality factor, and all other necessary modifying factors at the location of interest.” However, it is apparent from their definition of effective dose equivalent that “all other necessary modifying factors” excludes the tissue weighting factor.

## What is the annual dose of radiation?

The unit used in measuring our radiation dose is the millirem (mrem). The annual average dose per person from all natural and man-made sources is about 350 mrems, but it is not uncommon for any of us to receive more than that in a given year (largely due to medical procedures). Consequently, to protect health and safety, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established standards that allow exposures of up to 5,000 mrem per year for those who work with and around radioactive …

## What is the formula for radiation?

radiation: energy transferred by electromagnetic waves directly as a result of a temperature difference Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation: [latex]displaystylefrac{Q}{t}=sigma{e}A{T}^{4}\latex], where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, A is the surface area of the object, T is the absolute temperature, and e is the emissivity

## How do you calculate effective dose?

• Determine the dosage of the medication. Let’s say the appropriate dosage of the active substance is 2 mg/kg of body weight.
• Weigh yourself. …
• Multiply these two values to get the dose of medication in mg: 2 * 80 = 160 mg. …
• What if your medication is liquid? …
• Divide the dose by the medicine concentration to obtain the liquid dose: 160 / 2 = 80 ml.

## What is equivalent dose?

Equivalent dose (symbol HT) is a dose quantity calculated for individual organs (index T – tissue). Equivalent dose is based on the absorbed dose to an organ, adjusted to account for the effectiveness of the type of radiation. Equivalent dose is given the symbol H T. The SI unit of HT is the sievert (Sv) or but rem (roentgen equivalent man) is still commonly used ( 1 Sv = 100 rem ). The weighted dose was designated as the organ- or tissue equivalent dose:

## What is the unit of measurement for radiation?

In conventional units, it is measured in mSv/sec, Sv/hr, mrem/sec or rem/hr. Since the amount of radiation exposure depends directly (linearly) on the time people spend near the source of radiation, the absorbed dose is equal to the strength of the radiation field (dose rate) multiplied by the length of time spent in that field. The example above indicates a person could expect to receive a dose of 25 millirems by staying in a 50 millirems/hour field for thirty minutes.

## How many joules are in one Sv?

A dose of one Sv caused by gamma radiation is equivalent to an energy deposition of one joule in a kilogram of a tissue. That means one sievert is equivalent to one gray of gamma rays deposited in certain tissue. On the other hand, similar biological damage (one sievert) can be caused only by 1/20 gray of alpha radiation.

## How much energy does one sievert absorb?

One sievert is a large amount of equivalent dose. A person who has absorbed a whole body dose of 1 Sv has absorbed one joule of energy in each kg of body tissue (in case of gamma rays).

## What is the peak of Ba-137m?

About 94.6 percent decays by beta emission to a metastable nuclear isomer of barium: barium-137m. The main photon peak of Ba-137m is 662 keV. For this calculation, assume that all decays go through this channel.

## How long does 137Cs have a half life?

Assume the point isotropic source which contains 1.0 Ci of 137Cs, which has a half-life of 30.2 years. Note that the relationship between half-life and the amount of a radionuclide required to give an activity of one curie is shown below. This amount of material can be calculated using λ, which is the decay constant of certain nuclide:

## How to calculate equivalent dose?

Equivalent dose ( HT) is calculated by multiplying the absorbed dose to the organ or tissue ( DT) with the radiation weighting factor, wR. This factor is dependent on the type and energy of the incident radiation. The value of wR is 1 for x-rays, gamma rays and beta particles, but higher for protons ( wR = 5), neutrons ( wR is between 5 and 20 depending on energy), alpha particles and heavy fragments ( wR = 20) etc.

## What is equivalent dose?

Equivalent dose (symbol HT) is a measure of the radiation dose to tissue where an attempt has been made to allow for the different relative biological effects of different types of ionizing radiation. In quantitative terms, equivalent dose is less fundamental than absorbed dose, but it is more biologically significant.

## What is the value of WR?

The value of wR is 1 for x-rays, gamma rays and beta particles, but higher for protons ( wR = 5) , neutrons ( wR is between 5 and 20 depending on energy), alpha particles and heavy fragments ( wR = 20) etc. The numerical values given above are valid for legal EU regulations for calculating equivalent dose in an organ or tissue.

## Why is there an equivalent dose?

The equivalent dose may be due to several types of radiation. Each type will have its own absorbed dose and radiation weighting factor. This means that the equivalent dose from each type of radiation can be added to give a total equivalent dose.

## What is the radiation weighting factor for slow neutrons?

Looking at the previous table, the radiation weighting factor for slow neutrons is 3 and for gamma rays is 1. The average annual effective dose equivalent received by a person in the UK due to natural sources is about (2 mSv). This value increases significantly for those working with radioactive sources.

## How to get equivalent dose for a mix of radiation types and energies?

To obtain the equivalent dose for a mix of radiation types and energies, a sum is taken over all types of radiation energy doses. This takes into account the contributions of the varying biological effect of different radiation types.

## What is equivalent dose?

Equivalent dose is a dose quantity H representing the stochastic health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body which represents the probability of radiation-induced cancer and genetic damage. It is derived from the physical quantity absorbed dose, but also takes into account the biological effectiveness …

## What is radiation weighting factor?

The radiation weighting factor represents the relative biological effectiveness of the radiation and modifies the absorbed dose to take account of the different biological effects of various types and energies of radiation.

## How to calculate equivalent dose HT?

Equivalent dose HT is calculated using the mean absorbed dose deposited in body tissue or organ T, multiplied by the radiation weighting factor WR which is dependent on the type and energy of the radiation R.

## Why is equivalent dose HT used?

Equivalent dose HT is used for assessing stochastic health risk due to external radiation fields that penetrate uniformly through the whole body. However it needs further corrections when the field is applied only to part (s) of the body, or non-uniformly to measure the overall stochastic health risk to the body.

## What is the ICRP of radionuclides?

This refers specifically to the dose in a specific tissue or organ, in the similar way to external equivalent dose. The ICRP states “Radionuclides incorporated in the human body irradiate the tissues over time periods determined by their physical half-life and their biological retention within the body.

For applications in radiation protection and dosimetry assessment, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) have published recommendations and data on how to calculate equivalent dose from absorbed dose.

## How often do we get radiation?

Average U.S. Doses and Sources. All of us are exposed to radiation every day, from natural sources such as minerals in the ground, and man-made sources such as medical x-rays.

## Where does the majority of the radiation come from?

Most of our average annual dose comes from natural background radiation background radiation Radiation that is always in the environment. The majority of background radiation occurs naturally and a small fraction comes from man-made elements. sources: The radioactive gases radon and thoron, which are created when other naturally occurring elements …

## What is the background radiation?

The majority of background radiation occurs naturally and a small fraction comes from man-made elements. is present on Earth at all times. The majority of background radiation occurs naturally from minerals and a small fraction comes from man-made elements. Naturally occurring radioactive minerals in the ground, soil, and water produce background radiation. The human body even contains some of these naturally-occurring radioactive minerals. Cosmic radiation from space also contributes to the background radiation around us. There can be large variances in natural background radiation levels from place to place, as well as changes in the same location over time.

## How does cosmic radiation increase with elevation?

Some particles make it to the ground, while others interact with the atmosphere to create different types of radiation. Radiation levels increase as you get closer to the source, so the amount of cosmic radiation generally increases with elevation. The higher the altitude, the higher the dose.

## What are the sources of radiation?

Naturally occurring radioactive minerals in the ground, soil, and water produce background radiation. The human body even contains some of these naturally-occurring radioactive minerals. Cosmic radiation from space also contributes to the background radiation around us. There can be large variances in natural background radiation levels …

## What are the two gases that are created when other naturally occurring elements undergo radioactive decay?

The radioactive gases radon and thoron, which are created when other naturally occurring elements undergo radioactive decay.

## Where can trace amounts of uranium, thorium and their decay products be found?

Trace amounts of uranium, thorium and their decay products can be found everywhere. Learn more about radioactive decay. Terrestrial radiation levels vary by location, but areas with higher concentrations of uranium and thorium in surface soils generally have higher dose levels.

## What is the unit of measurement for radiation?

The scientific unit of measurement for whole body radiation dose, called “effective dose,” is the millisievert (mSv). Other radiation dose measurement units include rad, rem, roentgen, sievert, and gray. Doctors use “effective dose” when they talk about the risk of radiation to the entire body. Risk refers to possible side effects, such as …

## How much radiation does the average person get?

According to recent estimates, the average person in the U.S. receives an effective dose of about 3 mSv per year from natural radiation, which includes cosmic radiation from outer space. These natural “background doses” vary according to where you live.

## What are x-rays and what do they do?

X-rays are a form of energy, similar to light and radio waves. X-rays are also called radiation. Unlike light waves, x-rays have enough energy to pass through your body. As the radiation moves through your body, it passes through bones, tissues and organs differently, which allows a radiologist to create images of them. The radiologist is a specially trained physician who can examine these images on a monitor. The monitor is like a computer display. It allows the radiologist to see very fine detail of the structures in your body.

## How much radiation does a person get from high altitudes?

People living at high altitudes such as Colorado or New Mexico receive about 1.5 mSv more per year than those living near sea level. A coast-to-coast round trip airline flight is about 0.03 mSv due to exposure to cosmic rays. The largest source of background radiation comes from radon gas in our homes (about 2 mSv per year). Like other sources of background radiation, the amount of radon exposure varies widely depending on where you live.

## How much radiation is in a chest xray?

To put it simply, the amount of radiation from one adult chest x-ray (0.1 mSv) is about the same as 10 days of natural background radiation that we are all exposed to as part of our daily living.

## Why do doctors use effective dose?

Doctors use “effective dose” when they talk about the risk of radiation to the entire body. Risk refers to possible side effects, such as the chance of developing a cancer later in life. Effective dose takes into account how sensitive different tissues are to radiation. If you have an x-ray exam that includes tissues or organs that are more sensitive to radiation, your effective dose will be higher. Effective dose allows your doctor to evaluate your risk and compare it to common, everyday sources of exposure, such as natural background radiation.

## What happens when radiation passes through the body?

When radiation passes through the body, some of it gets absorbed. The x-rays that are not absorbed are used to create the image. The amount that is absorbed contributes to the patient’s radiation dose. The radiation that passes through the body does not. The scientific unit of measurement for whole body radiation dose, …

Radioactivity is a natural property of certain substances. There are natural and artificial sources of radiation.

## Absorbed dose units

When ionizing radiation hits biological tissue, the tissue absorbs it. The absorbed energy with the mass of biological tissue is called the absorbed dose. We express it in gray units (Gy).

## Equivalent dose units

An equivalent dose of physical size records the biological effect of radioactive radiation. Dose equivalent characterizes the absorbed dose that the body absorbs, taking into account the biological effects.

## Effective dose units

The sum of all the doses of organs and tissues is the effective dose. You express it in sievert.

## Effects of Radiation on the Body

Biological action is the effect of radiation on the human body and other living beings. In particular, it can lead to immediate damage (acute radiation damage). Cause damage that becomes visible only after years ( late damage ). They cause genetic damage (hereditary damage) that occurs only in offspring. One of the genetic diseases is cholesterol.

## International System of Units (SI) Unit and Common Unit

The International System of Units, abbreviated SI (from French: Système International d’Unités), is based on the International System of Quantities (ISQ). This metric system of units, introduced in 1960, is the most widespread system of units for physical quantities worldwide today.

## Conversion Equivalence Table

In the next table, you can find conversions between different units for radiation:

## from Absorbed Dose to Equivalent Dose

Note that the sievert is not a physical dose unit. For example, an absorbed dose of 1 Gy by alpha particles will lead to an equivalent dose of 20 Sv. This may seem to be a paradox. It implies that the energy of the incident radiation field in joules has increased by a factor of 20, thereby violating the laws of Conservation of energy. …

## Examples of Doses in Sieverts

• We must note thatradiationis all around us. In, around, and above the world we live in. It is a natural energy force that surrounds us. It is a part of our natural world that has been here since the birth of our planet. In the following points we try to express enormous ranges of radiation exposure, which can be obtained from various sources. 1. 0.05 µSv– Sleeping next to someone …

## Calculation of Shielded Dose Rate

• Assume the point isotropic source which contains 1.0 Ci of 137Cs, which has a half-life of 30.2 years. Note that the relationship between half-life and the amount of a radionuclide required to give an activity of one curie is shown below. This amount of material can be calculated using λ, which is the decay constantof certain nuclide: About 94.6 percent decays by beta emission to a …

## Overview

Equivalent dose is a dose quantity H representing the stochastic health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body which represents the probability of radiation-induced cancer and genetic damage. It is derived from the physical quantity absorbed dose, but also takes into account the biological effectiveness of the radiation, which is dependent on the radiation type and energy. In the SI system of units, the unit of measure is the sievert (Sv).

## Application

To enable consideration of stochastic health risk, calculations are performed to convert the physical quantity absorbed dose into equivalent dose, the details of which depend on the radiation type. For applications in radiation protection and dosimetry assessment, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) …

## Calculation

Equivalent dose HT is calculated using the mean absorbed dose deposited in body tissue or organ T, multiplied by the radiation weighting factor WR which is dependent on the type and energy of the radiation R.
The radiation weighting factor represents the relative biological effectiveness of the radiation and modifies the absorbed dose to take account of the different …

## History

The concept of equivalent dose was developed in the 1950s. In its 1990 recommendations, the ICRP revised the definitions of some radiation protection quantities, and provided new names for the revised quantities. Some regulators, notably the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission continue to use the old terminology of quality factors and dose equivalent, even though the underlying calculations have changed.

## Future use

At the ICRP 3rd International Symposium on the System of Radiological Protection in October 2015, ICRP Task Group 79 reported on the “Use of Effective Dose as a Risk-related Radiological Protection Quantity”.
This included a proposal to discontinue use of equivalent dose as a separate protection quantity. This would avoid confusion between equivalent dose, effective dose and dose equivalent, and t…

## Units

The SI unit of measure for equivalent dose is the sievert, defined as one Joule per kg. In the United States the roentgen equivalent man (rem), equal to 0.01 sievert, is still in common use, although regulatory and advisory bodies are encouraging transition to sieverts.

## Related quantities

Equivalent dose HT is used for assessing stochastic health risk due to external radiation fields that penetrate uniformly through the whole body. However it needs further corrections when the field is applied only to part(s) of the body, or non-uniformly to measure the overall stochastic health risk to the body. To enable this a further dose quantity called effective dose must be used to take into account the varying sensitivity of different organs and tissues to radiation.