## Norton’s theorem

Known in Europe as the Mayer–Norton theorem, Norton’s theorem holds, to illustrate in DC circuit theory terms, that: Any linear electrical network with voltage and current sources and only resistances can be replaced at terminals A-B by an equivalent current source INO in parallel connecti…

is a** dual network of the Thevenin**

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## Thévenin’s theorem

As originally stated in terms of DC resistive circuits only, the Thévenin’s theorem holds that: Any linear electrical network with voltage and current sources and only resistances can be replaced at terminals A-B by an equivalent voltage source Vₜₕ in series connection with an equivalent resistanc…

** equivalent circuit**. Norton and Thevenin theorem widely used to solve complex circuits in network analysis. As we have seen, the Norton equivalent circuit consists of a Norton current source and Thevenin equivalent circuit consists of a Thevenin voltage source.

**it is possible to simplify any linear circuit, no matter how complex, to an equivalent circuit with just a single current source and parallel resistance connected to a load**.

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What is the Norton equivalent circuit?

The Norton equivalent circuit represents a general circuit with an independent current source in parallel with the Norton equivalent Resistance. Norton current source ( ) is equivalent to the short-circuit current at the terminal a and b.

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What is the difference between Norton and Thevenin?

As we have seen, the Norton equivalent circuit consists of a Norton current source and Thevenin equivalent circuit consists of a Thevenin voltage source. The equivalent resistance is the same in both cases. To convert Norton to Thevenin equivalent circuit, source transformation is used.

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What is Norton current i n?

The constant current source used in Norton equivalent circuit is known as Norton current I N or short circuit current I SC. Norton theorem was derived by Hans Ferdinand Mayer and Edward Lawry Norton in 1926.

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What is Norton’s theorem?

Norton’s Theorem (also known as the Mayer–Norton theorem) states that it is possible to simplify any linear circuit to an equivalent circuit with a single current source and equivalent parallel resistance connected to a load. The simplified circuit is known as the Norton Equivalent Circuit. More formally, Norton’s theorem can be stated as:

What is Norton’s equivalent current?

Norton’s theorem is similar to Thevenin’s theorem. It states that any two terminal linear network or circuit can be represented with an equivalent network or circuit, which consists of a current source in parallel with a resistor. It is known as Norton’s equivalent circuit.

How is Thevenin and Norton equivalent?

Thevenin voltage is equal to Norton’s current times Norton resistance. Norton current is equal to Thevenin voltage divided by Thevenin resistance.

What is the Norton equivalent resistance?

Any collection of batteries and resistances with two terminals is electrically equivalent to an ideal current source i in parallel with a single resistor r. The value of r is the same as that in the Thevenin equivalent and the current i can be found by dividing the open circuit voltage by r.

Is short-circuit current equal to Norton current?

Norton’s Theorem: Any two terminals of a network of any number of resistors, current sources and/or voltage sources can be reduced to one current source in parallel with one resistor. The short-circuit current available from these two terminals is the Norton current.

How do you calculate Norton equivalent?

Find the Norton resistance by removing all power sources in the original circuit (voltage sources shorted and current sources open) and calculating total resistance between the open connection points. Draw the Norton equivalent circuit, with the Norton current source in parallel with the Norton resistance.

What is Thevenin equivalent voltage?

Thevenin equivalent voltage (Veq) is equal to the open-circuit voltage measured across two terminals of load. This value of the ideal voltage source is used in Thevenin equivalent circuit.

What is a Norton?

Norton AntiVirus is an anti-virus or anti-malware software product, developed and distributed by NortonLifeLock since 1991 as part of its Norton family of computer security products. It uses signatures and heuristics to identify viruses.

Why Norton theorem is used?

The Norton equivalent circuit is used to represent any network of linear sources and impedances at a given frequency. Norton’s theorem and its dual, Thévenin’s theorem, are widely used for circuit analysis simplification and to study circuit’s initial-condition and steady-state response.

How do you calculate RTH and VTH?

1:5112:19Thevenin’s circuit, finding Vth and Rth network theory – GATE and IESYouTubeStart of suggested clipEnd of suggested clipYou have the function relating il with the I th and RL + v th. So you don’t have to worry about theMoreYou have the function relating il with the I th and RL + v th. So you don’t have to worry about the changed value of RL. You just have to put the new value and you will get the new value of IL. If.

How do you use Norton’s Theorem?

Steps to Analyze an Electric Circuit using Norton’s TheoremShort the load resistor.Calculate / measure the Short Circuit Current. … Open Current Sources, Short Voltage Sources and Open Load Resistor.Calculate /measure the Open Circuit Resistance.More items…

Why Thevenin and Norton are complementary to each other?

Two circuits that differ physically have the same electrical characteristics. While Thevenin’s theory focuses on voltage sources, Edward Norton took a slightly different path by focusing on current sources. As a result, the two theories complement one another.

How can Thevenin’s impedance and Norton impedance be correlated in an AC circuit?

SOLUTION. Thevenin’s impedance and Norton’s impedance both are same in the AC circuit. We can calculate this resistance by supressing all the independent sources in the circuit.

How do I get Thevenin equivalent?

Remember the three step process: Find the Thevenin Resistance by removing all voltage sources and load. Find the Thevenin Voltage by reconnecting the voltage sources. Use the Thevenin Resistance and Voltage to find the total current flowing through the load.

Is RTh and RN same?

The Norton equivalent resistance (RN) is equal to the Thévenin equivalent resistance (RTh). Calculate RTh as described in step 2 in the Thévenin equivalent circuit. and RN = RTh. The Thévenin equivalent circuit is the source transformation of the Norton equivalent circuit.

What is Norton equivalent?

Hence, the Norton equivalent is** a 7 A current source in parallel with a 2 Ω resistance, ** as shown in Fig. 1.21 d. We can now double check: Rth = Vth / Isc = 14/7 = 2 Ω, which checks; also, In can be obtained from Thevenin’s circuit by In = Vth / Rth = 14/2 = 7 A, which also checks.

What is the Norton theorem?

The “Thévenin Theorem” states that** any network of passive elements and sources can be reduced to a single voltage source and series impedance. ** Such a reduced network would look like a Thévenin circuit such as that shown in Figure 14.22, except that the internal resistance, RT, would be replaced by a generalized impedance, ZT(ω). The Norton theorem makes the same claim for Norton circuits, which is reasonable since Thévenin circuits can easily be converted to Norton circuits via Equations 14.19 and 14.20.

How to reduce a network?

To reduce the network, essentially** turn off the sources and apply network reduction techniques to what is left. ** Turning off a source does not mean you remove it from the circuit; rather, to turn off a source, you replace it by its equivalent resistance.

Is Norton theorem the same as Thevenin’s theorem?

1.13 ). The** resistance for the Norton circuit is the same as Rth for Thevenin’s circuit. ** The Norton current is given by Isc, obtained by short-circuiting RL and measuring the current. As we already have covered transformations between current and voltage sources, the relationship between Norton’s and Thevenin’s circuits should be clear.

Is network reduction linear or sinusoidal?

As has been done in the past, the techniques for network reduction will be developed using phasor representation and hence will be limited to networks with** sinusoidal ** sources. However, the approach is the same in the Laplace domain.

Is thermal noise an ideal resistor?

**The thermal noise of a ** resistance**, R, can be modeled as an ideal resistor and ** an independent current or voltage source, as shown in Figure 2.3. The Thevenin equivalent noise voltage is given by:

What is Norton equivalent circuit?

The Norton Equivalent Circuit: The Norton equivalent circuit represents** a general circuit with an independent current source in parallel with the Norton equivalent Resistance. ** Norton current source ( ) is equivalent to the short-circuit current at the terminal a and b.

Which theorem says that any circuit with a voltage source and a network of resistors can be?

**Thévenin’s ** Theorem. This Theorem says that any circuit with a voltage source and a network of resistors can be transformed into one voltage source and one resistor. General Circuit Thévenin Equivalent Circuit.

How to find the thévenin resistance?

The Thévenin resistance Rth can be calculated as. Example 1: Find the Thévenin equivalent of the circuit. Solution: Step 1:** Calculate the open-voltage circuit of. ** Step 2: Short Circuit Current. Step 2: The other way to find.

How to find the thévenin of a circuit?

Method 1. Step 1:** Find the open circuit voltage that will be which is. ** Step** 2: Take out the voltage source and make a short circuit in source connection. ** Method 2: Use source transformation. Voltage source transformation. 2 parallel resistances. Current source transformation. 2 serial resistances. Example 3: Find the Thévenin …

How to get Norton’s equivalent resistance?

1. To obtain the resistance RN– called Norton’s equivalent resistance of circuit A: I.** Remove circuit B from circuit A. ** II**. Set all independent sources in circuit A to zero. ** (A zero voltage source is equivalent to a short circuit, and zero current source is equivalent to an open circuit). III.

How to find Norton’s equivalent of circuit A?

To obtain Norton’s equivalent of some circuit A,** determine the short-circuit current isc by placing a short circuit between nodes a and b and then calculate the resulting current (directed from the terminal a to b through the short circuit). **

What is the difference between a parallel and a two terminal network?

The current source output is the short-circuit current at the terminals of a network, whereas the parallel resistance is** the resistance between the terminals of a network when all the sources are set to zero. **

When to use Norton impedance?

This voltage divided by the 1 A current is the Norton impedance Rno. This method must be used** if the circuit contains dependent sources, ** but it can be used in** all cases even when there are no dependent sources. **

What is Norton’s theorem?

In direct-current circuit theory, Norton’s theorem (aka Mayer–Norton theorem) is** a simplification that can be applied to networks made of linear time-invariant resistances, voltage sources, and current sources. ** At a pair of terminals of the network, it can be replaced by a current source and a single resistor in parallel.

Who discovered Norton’s theorem?

Norton’s theorem was independently derived in 1926 by** Siemens & Halske researcher Hans Ferdinand Mayer (1895–1980) ** and** Bell Labs engineer Edward Lawry Norton ** (1898–1983). To find the equivalent, the Norton current Ino is calculated as the current flowing at the terminals into a short circuit (zero resistance between A and B ).

How many amps is Norton?

With the Norton equivalent, the short-circuit current would be exactly equal to the Norton source current, which is** 14 ** amps in this case. With the Thevenin equivalent, all 11.2 volts would be applied across the 0.8 Ω Thevenin resistance, producing the exact same current through the short,** 14 amps ** (I=E/R). Thus, we can say that the Norton current is equal to the Thevenin voltage divided by the Thevenin resistance:

Is Norton the same as Thevenin?

Considering the fact that both Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits** are intended to behave the same as ** the original network in suppling voltage and current to the load resistor (as seen from the perspective of the load connection points), these two equivalent circuits, having been derived from the same original network should behave identically.

How to calculate Norton resistance?

To calculate the Norton resistance (R Norton ), we do the exact same thing as we did for calculating Thevenin resistance (R Thevenin ):** take the original circuit (with the load resistor still removed), remove the power sources (in the same style as we did with the Superposition Theorem: voltage sources replaced with wires and current sources replaced with breaks), and figure total resistance from one load connection point to the other: **

How to find Norton source current?

Find the Norton source current by** removing the load resistor from the original circuit and calculating the current through a short (wire) jumping across the open connection points where the load resistor used to be. **

What is Norton’s Theorem?

Norton’s Theorem states that** it is possible to simplify any linear circuit, no matter how complex, to an equivalent circuit with just a single current source and parallel resistance connected to a load. ** Just as with Thevenin’s Theorem, the qualification of “linear” is identical to that found in the Superposition Theorem: all underlying equations must be linear (no exponents or roots).