## Norton’s theorem

Known in Europe as the Mayer–Norton theorem, Norton’s theorem holds, to illustrate in DC circuit theory terms, that: Any linear electrical network with voltage and current sources and only resistances can be replaced at terminals A-B by an equivalent current source INO in parallel connecti…

is a** dual network of the Thevenin equivalent**

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## Thévenin’s theorem

As originally stated in terms of DC resistive circuits only, the Thévenin’s theorem holds that: Any linear electrical network with voltage and current sources and only resistances can be replaced at terminals A-B by an equivalent voltage source Vₜₕ in series connection with an equivalent resistanc…

** circuit**. Norton and Thevenin theorem widely used to solve complex circuits in network analysis. As we have seen, the Norton equivalent circuit consists of a Norton current source and Thevenin equivalent circuit consists of a Thevenin voltage source.

**used to represent any network of linear sources and impedances at a given frequency**. Norton’s theorem and its dual, Thévenin’s theorem, are widely used for circuit analysis simplification and to study circuit’s initial-condition and steady-state response.

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What are Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits?

Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits are fundamental approaches to analyzing both AC and DC circuits. It is important to understand the steps involved in converting a circuit to its Thevenin or Norton equivalent, but more important still is understanding how these techniques can help you to analyze and design actual electronic devices.

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What is the constant current source used in Norton equivalent circuit?

The constant current source used in Norton equivalent circuit is known as Norton current I N or short circuit current I SC. Norton theorem was derived by Hans Ferdinand Mayer and Edward Lawry Norton in 1926. As shown in the Norton equivalent circuit, the Norton current is divided into two paths.

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How do you draw a Norton equivalent circuit?

Draw the Norton equivalent circuit, with the Norton current source in parallel with the Norton resistance. The load resistor re-attaches between the two open points of the equivalent circuit. Analyze voltage and current for the load resistor following the rules for parallel circuits.

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How do you find Norton resistance in a circuit?

Find the Norton resistance by removing all power sources in the original circuit (voltage sources shorted and current sources open) and calculating total resistance between the open connection points. Draw the Norton equivalent circuit, with the Norton current source in parallel with the Norton resistance.

How do you find the Norton equivalent of a circuit?

Find the Norton resistance by removing all power sources in the original circuit (voltage sources shorted and current sources open) and calculating total resistance between the open connection points. Draw the Norton equivalent circuit, with the Norton current source in parallel with the Norton resistance.

What is the Norton equivalent current?

Norton’s equivalent circuit resembles a practical current source. Hence, it is having a current source in parallel with a resistor. The current source present in the Norton’s equivalent circuit is called as Norton’s equivalent current or simply Norton’s current IN.

What is a Norton circuit?

The Norton equivalent circuit represents a general circuit with an independent current source in parallel with the Norton equivalent Resistance. Norton current source ( ) is equivalent to the short-circuit current at the terminal a and b. Norton resistance is th e same as the Thévenin resistance.

What are Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits?

4:007:11Examples: Thevenin & Norton Equivalent Circuits – YouTubeYouTubeStart of suggested clipEnd of suggested clipAs a Norton equivalent circuit. Which basically means a 2.4. And current source in parallel to aMoreAs a Norton equivalent circuit. Which basically means a 2.4. And current source in parallel to a seven and a half all resistance source let’s do one more example for this strike our goal is to figure

What is the formula of Norton Theorem?

In this example, the Norton current is obtained from the open circuit voltage (the Thevenin voltage) divided by the resistance r. This resistance is the same as the Thevenin resistance, the resistance looking back from AB with V1 replaced by a short circuit. since R1 and R3 form a simple voltage divider. = Ω.

Why Norton theorem is used?

The Norton equivalent circuit is used to represent any network of linear sources and impedances at a given frequency. Norton’s theorem and its dual, Thévenin’s theorem, are widely used for circuit analysis simplification and to study circuit’s initial-condition and steady-state response.

What is Norton equivalent resistance?

Nortons theorem is an analytical method used to change a complex circuit into a simple equivalent circuit consisting of a single resistance in parallel with a current source. Norton on the other hand reduces his circuit down to a single resistance in parallel with a constant current source.

What is an equivalent circuit of a device?

In electrical engineering and science, an equivalent circuit refers to a theoretical circuit that retains all of the electrical characteristics of a given circuit.

How does Norton measure current?

7:3411:05Norton’s Theorem and Thevenin’s Theorem – Electrical Circuit AnalysisYouTubeStart of suggested clipEnd of suggested clipCurrent is going to be the thevenin voltage divided by the norton resistance. So that’s 33.4285MoreCurrent is going to be the thevenin voltage divided by the norton resistance. So that’s 33.4285 volts divided by 2.357 ohms so the norton. Current is 14.183 amps so now that we have the norton’s.

What is difference between Thevenin and Norton Theorem?

What is the difference between Thevenin and Norton theorems? – Norton’s theorem uses a current source, whereas Thevenin’s theorem uses a voltage source. – Thevenin’s theorem uses a resistor in series, while Norton’s theorem uses a resister set in parallel with the source.

Is Norton and Thevenin the same?

Thevenin voltage is equal to Norton’s current times Norton resistance. Norton current is equal to Thevenin voltage divided by Thevenin resistance.

What is Thevenin’s theorem formula?

Any combination of batteries and resistances with two terminals can be replaced by a single voltage source e and a single series resistor r. The value of e is the open circuit voltage at the terminals, and the value of r is e divided by the current with the terminals short circuited.

How do you find equivalent current?

The equivalent resistance of a 4-Ω and 12-Ω resistor placed in parallel can be determined using the usual formula for equivalent resistance of parallel branches: 1 / Req = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1 / R3 … Now the Ohm’s law equation (ΔV = I • R) can be used to determine the total current in the circuit.

Is RTh and RN same?

The Norton equivalent resistance (RN) is equal to the Thévenin equivalent resistance (RTh). Calculate RTh as described in step 2 in the Thévenin equivalent circuit. and RN = RTh. The Thévenin equivalent circuit is the source transformation of the Norton equivalent circuit.

How do you find Thevenin equivalent of a current source?

Remember the three step process:Find the Thevenin Resistance by removing all voltage sources and load.Find the Thevenin Voltage by reconnecting the voltage sources.Use the Thevenin Resistance and Voltage to find the total current flowing through the load.

How to find Norton source current?

Find the Norton source current by** removing the load resistor from the original circuit and calculating the current through a short (wire) jumping across the open connection points where the load resistor used to be. **

How to calculate Norton resistance?

To calculate the Norton resistance (R Norton ), we do the exact same thing as we did for calculating Thevenin resistance (R Thevenin ):** take the original circuit (with the load resistor still removed), remove the power sources (in the same style as we did with the Superposition Theorem: voltage sources replaced with wires and current sources replaced with breaks), and figure total resistance from one load connection point to the other: **

What is Norton’s Theorem?

Norton’s Theorem states that** it is possible to simplify any linear circuit, no matter how complex, to an equivalent circuit with just a single current source and parallel resistance connected to a load. ** Just as with Thevenin’s Theorem, the qualification of “linear” is identical to that found in the Superposition Theorem: all underlying equations must be linear (no exponents or roots).

Why is it important to understand the steps involved in converting a circuit to its Thevenin or Norton equivalent?

It is important to understand the steps involved in converting a circuit to its Thevenin or Norton equivalent, but more important still is understanding** how these techniques can help you to analyze and design actual electronic devices. **

How to find equivalent circuit?

The basic procedure for finding a Thevenin equivalent circuit is the following: First,** determine which nodes in your original circuit will correspond to the Thevenin circuit’s two output terminals. Second, modify the original circuit so that there is no load connection between these two nodes (for example, by removing a resistor that now corresponds to a load resistor considered external to the circuit). Then **,** determine V Th by calculating the voltage across the output terminals. ** Finally,** determine R Th by calculating the equivalent resistance assuming all independent sources are removed ( **this means that voltage sources are replaced by a short circuit and current sources are replaced by an open circuit**). ** For detailed information on how to calcuate a Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit, see Thevenin’s Theorem or Norton’s Theorem in the textbook section.

What is Thevenin equivalent circuit?

Also, it is important to keep in mind that the Thevenin equivalent circuit is only** an accurate representation of the circuit from the perspective of the load connected to the two output terminals; ** it doesn’t tell you anything about the internal functionality of the circuit.

What is Norton’s theorem?

Norton’s theorem is** the same except that the voltage source and series resistance are replaced by a current source and parallel resistance. **

Why is circuit design easier?

The biggest reason for doing this is that circuits are** easier to deal with when they are divided into digestible portions. ** No one would ever dream of designing a microprocessor by starting with a billion transistors and wiring them together one by one; likewise, even a relatively simple mixed-signal design is best analyzed as a collection of interconnected blocks. This is the essence of Thevenin’s theorem: reduce a circuit to the simplest representation that allows you to determine how that circuit block will interact with another circuit block. Consider the following example:

What is load resistance at 3.6 V?

The cursor shows that at 3.6 V (which is half the open circuit voltage), load resistance equals** 132 Ω. ** This agrees with the theoretical Thevenin resistance of

How to find Norton’s equivalent of circuit A?

To obtain Norton’s equivalent of some circuit A,** determine the short-circuit current isc by placing a short circuit between nodes a and b and then calculate the resulting current (directed from the terminal a to b through the short circuit). **

How to get Norton’s equivalent resistance?

1. To obtain the resistance RN– called Norton’s equivalent resistance of circuit A: I.** Remove circuit B from circuit A. ** II**. Set all independent sources in circuit A to zero. ** (A zero voltage source is equivalent to a short circuit, and zero current source is equivalent to an open circuit). III.

What is circuit B?

Circuit B (which is often called a load) may consist of** many circuit elements, a single element ( a load resistor), or no element. **

What are the elements of an arbitrary circuit?

Suppose we are given an arbitrary circuit containing any or all of the following elements:** resistors, voltage sources **,** current sources ** (the source can be dependent as well as independent). Let us identify a pair of nodes, say node a and b, such that the circuit can be partitioned into two parts as shown in figure 1.

What is the difference between a parallel and a two terminal network?

The current source output is the short-circuit current at the terminals of a network, whereas the parallel resistance is** the resistance between the terminals of a network when all the sources are set to zero. **

When to use Norton impedance?

This voltage divided by the 1 A current is the Norton impedance Rno. This method must be used** if the circuit contains dependent sources, ** but it can be used in** all cases even when there are no dependent sources. **

What is Norton’s theorem?

In direct-current circuit theory, Norton’s theorem (aka Mayer–Norton theorem) is** a simplification that can be applied to networks made of linear time-invariant resistances, voltage sources, and current sources. ** At a pair of terminals of the network, it can be replaced by a current source and a single resistor in parallel.

Who discovered Norton’s theorem?

Norton’s theorem was independently derived in 1926 by** Siemens & Halske researcher Hans Ferdinand Mayer (1895–1980) ** and** Bell Labs engineer Edward Lawry Norton ** (1898–1983). To find the equivalent, the Norton current Ino is calculated as the current flowing at the terminals into a short circuit (zero resistance between A and B ).

Can AC theorems be applied to reactive impedances?

For** alternating current (AC) systems ** the theorem can be applied to reactive impedances as well as resistances.

Can a black box be replaced with a current source?

Any** black box containing resist **ances only** and voltage and current sources can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of an equivalent current source ** in parallel connection with an equivalent resistance.

What is Norton equivalent circuit?

The Norton Equivalent Circuit: The Norton equivalent circuit represents** a general circuit with an independent current source in parallel with the Norton equivalent Resistance. ** Norton current source ( ) is equivalent to the short-circuit current at the terminal a and b.

How to find the thévenin of a circuit?

Method 1. Step 1:** Find the open circuit voltage that will be which is. ** Step** 2: Take out the voltage source and make a short circuit in source connection. ** Method 2: Use source transformation. Voltage source transformation. 2 parallel resistances. Current source transformation. 2 serial resistances. Example 3: Find the Thévenin …

Which theorem says that any circuit with a voltage source and a network of resistors can be?

**Thévenin’s ** Theorem. This Theorem says that any circuit with a voltage source and a network of resistors can be transformed into one voltage source and one resistor. General Circuit Thévenin Equivalent Circuit.

How to find the thévenin resistance?

The Thévenin resistance Rth can be calculated as. Example 1: Find the Thévenin equivalent of the circuit. Solution: Step 1:** Calculate the open-voltage circuit of. ** Step 2: Short Circuit Current. Step 2: The other way to find.