A nonequivalent group design is a quasiexperiment used to assess the relative effects of treatments that have been assigned to groups of participants nonrandomly. Because the participants have been assigned to treatments nonrandomly, differences in the composition of the treatment groups can bias the estimates of the treatment effects.
What is a nonequivalent groups design?
For this reason, researchers consider them to be nonequivalent. A nonequivalent groups design, then, is a betweensubjects design in which participants have not been randomly assigned to conditions.
What is a non equivalent control group posttestonly design?
The nonequivalent control group posttestonly design can be used in natural settings, where randomisation cannot be conducted for ethical or practical reasons. Although the design is less complex than some other designs, with low error propagation, it is vulnerable to threats to internal validity.
What is the most popular quasiexperimental design?
The nonequivalent control group design is perhaps the most popular quasiexperimental design. The nonequivalent control group design is effective at researching groups that already exist in the population.
Why do researchers consider groups to be equivalent or nonequivalent?
In fact, researchers consider them to be equivalent. When participants are not randomly assigned to conditions, however, the resulting groups are likely to be dissimilar in some ways. For this reason, researchers consider them to be nonequivalent.
What is non equivalent group design?
A nonequivalent groups design , then, is a betweensubjects design in which participants have not been randomly assigned to conditions. Imagine, for example, a researcher who wants to evaluate a new method of teaching fractions to third graders.
What is an example of a non equivalent control group design?
Imagine, for example, that students in one school are given a pretest on their attitudes toward drugs, then are exposed to an antidrug program, and finally, are given a posttest. Students in a similar school are given the pretest, not exposed to an antidrug program, and finally, are given a posttest.
What are non equivalent groups in research?
A nonequivalent group design is one where the assignment of participants to groups is not controlled by the investigator. When group assignment is not controlled there is a significant threat to internal validity. Since group assignment is not random, there is a chance that the groups are not similar.
What is a non equivalent comparison group?
a quasiexperimental design in which the responses of a treatment group and a control group are compared on measures collected at the beginning and end of the research.
What is non equivalent?
(ˌnɒnɪˈkwɪvələnt ) adjective. not equivalent, equal, or interchangeable.
How is a nonequivalent control group design different from a true independent groups experiment?
How is a nonequivalent control group design different from a true independent? Only a true independent groups design randomly assigns participants to groups. How are interrupted timeseries designs and nonequivalent control group interrupted timeseries different from true within groups experiments?
When using a nonequivalent groups design the researcher will assign subjects to groups by?
When using a nonequivalentgroups design the researcher will handle subject assignment to groups by: Matching subjects in the experimental group to those in the comparison group.
What is the major threat to validity of the non equivalent control group design?
Second, in the NEGD the biggest threat to internal validity is selection – that the groups differed before the program.
What is group equivalence in research?
In the simplest type of experiment, we create two groups that are “equivalent” to each other. One group (the program or treatment group) gets the program and the other group (the comparison or control group) does not. In all other respects, the groups are treated the same.
What is the difference between Nonexperimental and quasiexperimental?
Quasiexperimental and nonexperimental strategies are differentiated by the fact that quasiexperimental studies include some attempt to limit or control threats to internal validity but nonexperimental studies do not.
What is the advantage of the pretest in the non equivalent control group pretest posttest design?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the nonequivalent control group pretestposttest design? Advantages: Can compare scores before and after a treatment in a group that receives the treatment and in a group that does not. Disadvantages: susceptible to the threat of selection differences.
What is the difference between the two types of experimental research design?
1. In experimental research, the researcher can control and manipulate the environment of the research, including the predictor variable which can be changed. On the other hand, nonexperimental research cannot be controlled or manipulated by the researcher at will.
What is a nonequivalent control group pretestposttest design?
In the pretestposttest nonequivalent groups design there is a treatment group that is given a pretest, receives a treatment, and then is given a posttest. But at the same time there is a nonequivalent control group that is given a pretest, does not receive the treatment, and then is given a posttest.
What is the major threat to validity of the non equivalent control group design?
Second, in the NEGD the biggest threat to internal validity is selection – that the groups differed before the program.
When using a non equivalent groups design the researcher will handle subject assignment to groups by?
When using a nonequivalentgroups design the researcher will handle subject assignment to groups by: Matching subjects in the experimental group to those in the comparison group.
When we say that groups in non and quasiexperimental designs are non equivalent This means that?
In nonequivalent group design, the researcher chooses existing groups that appear similar, but where only one of the groups experiences the treatment. In a true experiment with random assignment, the control and treatment groups are considered equivalent in every way other than the treatment.
What is a nonequivalent group design?
The NonEquivalent Groups Design (hereafter NEGD) is probably the most frequently used design in social research. It is structured like a pretestposttest randomized experiment, but it lacks the key feature of the randomized designs – random assignment. In the NEGD, we most often use intact groups that we think are similar as the treatment and control groups. In education, we might pick two comparable classrooms or schools. In communitybased research, we might use two similar communities. We try to select groups that are as similar as possible so we can fairly compare the treated one with the comparison one. But we can never be sure the groups are comparable. Or, put another way, it’s unlikely that the two groups would be as similar as they would if we assigned them through a random lottery. Because it’s often likely that the groups are not equivalent, this designed was named the nonequivalent groups design to remind us.
What does “nonequivalent” mean?
So, what does the term “nonequivalent” mean? In one sense, it just means that assignment to group was not random. In other words, the researcher did not control the assignment to groups through the mechanism of random assignment. As a result, the groups may be different prior to the study.
Is the fifth outcome the strongest evidence for a program effect?
Although this fifth outcome is the strongest evidence for a program effect, you can’t very well construct your study expecting to find this kind of pattern. It would be a little bit like saying “let’s give our program to the toughest cases and see if we can improve them so much that they not only become like ‘average’ cases, but actually outperform them.” That’s an awfully big expectation to saddle any program with. Typically, you wouldn’t want to subject your program to that kind of expectation. But if you happen to find that kind of result, you really have a program effect that has beat the odds.
Is NEGD a threat to selection?
As a result, the groups may be different prior to the study. That is, the NEGD is especially susceptible to the internal validity threat of selection. Any prior differences between the groups may affect the outcome of the study.
What is a nonequivalent group design?
A. nonequivalent groups design. , then, is a betweensubjects design in which participants have not been randomly assigned to conditions.
How to improve posttest only nonequivalent groups design?
Another way to improve upon the posttest only nonequivalent groups design is to add a pretest. In the#N#pretestposttest nonequivalent groups design#N#t here is a treatment group that is given a pretest, receives a treatment, and then is given a posttest. But at the same time there is a nonequivalent control group that is given a pretest, does not receive the treatment, and then is given a posttest. The question, then, is not simply whether participants who receive the treatment improve, but whether they improve more than participants who do not receive the treatment.
How are nonequivalent groups administered?
In this design nonequivalent groups are administered a pretest of the dependent variable, then one group receives a treatment while a nonequivalent control group does not receive a treatment, the dependent variable is assessed again , and then the treatment is added to the control group, and finally the dependent variable is assessed one last time .
What is a between subject design?
A betweensubjects design in which participants have not been randomly assigned to conditions.
What happens if students in a similar school are given a pretest?
Students in a similar school are given the pretest, not exposed to an antidrug program, and finally, are given a posttest. Again, if students in the treatment condition become more negative toward drugs, this change in attitude could be an effect of the treatment, but it could also be a matter of history or maturation.
What is a nonequivalent group design?
A. nonequivalent groups design. , then, is a betweensubjects design in which participants have not been randomly assigned to conditions.
How to improve posttest only nonequivalent groups design?
Another way to improve upon the posttest only nonequivalent groups design is to add a pretest. In the#N#pretestposttest nonequivalent groups design#N#t here is a treatment group that is given a pretest, receives a treatment, and then is given a posttest. But at the same time there is a nonequivalent control group that is given a pretest, does not receive the treatment, and then is given a posttest. The question, then, is not simply whether participants who receive the treatment improve, but whether they improve more than participants who do not receive the treatment.
What is the most popular quasiexperimental design?
The nonequivalent control group design is perhaps the most popular quasiexperimental design. The nonequivalent control group design is effective at researching groups that already exist in the population.
How are study groups randomly assigned?
Study groups are randomly assigned to either receive the treatment or receive a control treatment. After checking to see that the intervention groups are in a state of equipoise (equal in terms of prognostic, confounding, and clinical factors), a baseline measure of the outcome is taken from each group. Then, the intervention is given …
What is a mixed effect analysis?
This is considered a mixedeffects type of analysis with both betweensubjects (treatment vs. control) and withinsubjects (baseline vs. post) effects being tested for a potential interaction.
What is a nedg?
The design notation for the NonEquivalent Groups Design (NEGD) shows that we have two groups, a program and comparison group, and that each is measured pre and post. The statistical model that we would intuitively expect could be used in this situation would have a pretest variable, posttest variable, and a dummy variable variable that describes which group the person is in. These three variables would be the input for the statistical analysis. We would be interested in estimating the difference between the groups on the posttest after adjusting for differences on the pretest. This is essentially the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) model as described in connection with randomized experiments (see the discussion of Analysis of Covariance and how we adjust for pretest differences). There’s only one major problem with this model when used with the NEGD – it doesn’t work! Here, I’ll tell you the story of why the ANCOVA model fails and what we can do to adjust it so it works correctly.
Why doesn’t the pseudo effect occur in the randomized analysis of covariance design?
So, why doesn’t this pseudoeffect occur in the randomized Analysis of Covariance design? The next figure shows that even in the randomized design, pretest measurement error does cause the slopes of the lines to be flattened. But, we don’t get a pseudoeffect in the randomized case even though the attenuation occurs. Why? Because in the randomized case the two groups are equivalent on the pretest – there is no horizontal difference between the lines. The lines for the two groups overlap perfectly in the null case. So, when the attenuation occurs, it occurs the same way in both lines and there is no vertical displacement introduced between the lines. Compare this figure to the one above. You should now see that the difference is that in the NEGD case above we have the attenuation of slopes and the initial nonequivalence between the groups. Under these circumstances the flattening of the lines introduces a displacement. In the randomized case we also get the flattening, but there is no displacement because there is no nonequivalence between the groups initially.
Is 9.3048 an unbiased estimate?
And, when we construct a 95% confidence interval for our adjusted estimate, we see that the true value of 10 falls within the interval. That is, the analysis estimated a treatment effect that is not statistically different from the true effect – it is an unbiased estimate.
What is the aim of the quasiexperimental ‘nonequivalent control group posttest?
Aim: To present the features of the quasiexperimental ‘nonequivalent control group posttestonly’ design, which aims to demonstrate causality between an intervention and an outcome.
What is quantitative research design?
Background: Quantitative research designs are broadly classified as either experimental or quasiexperimental. The main distinguishing feature of the quasiexperiment is the manipulation of the independent variable without randomisation. When randomisation or use of a control group is unfeasible, a researcher can choose from a range of quasiexperimental designs.
Can a posttest only design be used in natural settings?
Conclusion: The nonequivalent control group post testonly design can be used in natural settings, where randomisation cannot be conducted for ethical or practical reasons. Although the design is less complex than some other designs, with low error propagation, it is vulnerable to threats to internal validity.
What is approximate treatment for the problem in non equivalent group analysis?
The approximate treatment for the problem in non equivalent group analysis, the reliability and correction helps to adjust the errors of pretest measurement. For the adjustability of pretest measurements the following equation is evaluated.
What is the XADJ of a pretest?
In the above equation, Xadj is the adjusted value of the pretest measurement, mean (X) is the original value of the pretest and r indicates the reliability factor. In the non equivalent group of design, our analysis increases the complexity in the work as with the gradually increase in the reliability to overcome the errors as according to their need and also by knowing that such analysis involve the non equivalence between the groups. It is also preferable and benefitted to assign non equivalent groups rather than random assigning.
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At baseline, why couldn’t we compare between the classes? Wouldn’t a nonsignificant difference between the classes ensure comparability? Postintervention, can the change in scores (from baseline to followup) within each of the classes be determined by Wilcoxon signedrank test? Finally, can betweenclass comparisons (both baseline and followup) be made using Mann Whitney or Independent samples ttest (based on normality test results)?.
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What is the statistical test I can use for the pretest posttest control group research design?
The Basic Design

Recall that when participants in a betweensubjects experiment are randomly assigned to conditions, the resulting groups are likely to be quite similar. In fact, researchers consider them to be equivalent. When participants are not randomly assigned to conditions, however, the resultin…
The Bivariate Distribution
Possible Outcome #1
Possible Outcome #2
Possible Outcome #3
Possible Outcome #4
Possible Outcome #5

Let’s begin our exploration of the NEGD by looking at some hypothetical results. The first figure shows a bivariate distribution in the simple prepost, two group study. The treated cases are indicated with Xs while the comparison cases are indicated with Os. A couple of things should be obvious from the graph. To begin, we don’t even need statistics to see that there is a whopping t…