# Equivalent statements

Equivalent Statements are statements that are written differently, but hold the same logical equivalence

## Logical equivalence

In logic, statements p and q are logically equivalent if they have the same logical content. This is a semantic concept; two statements are equivalent if they have the same truth value in every model (Mendelson 1979:56). The logical equivalence of p and q is sometimes expressed as, Epq, or.

. Case 1: “ If p then q ” has three equivalent statements. Statement

Take for example the statement “If is even, then is an integer.” An equivalent statement is “If is not an integer, then is not even.” The original statement had the form “If A, then B” and the second one had the form “If not B, then not A.” (Here A is the statement ” is even”, so “not A” is the statement ” is not even” …

## What does logically equivalent mean in logic?

In basic propositional logic, you represent a statement by a letter, for example p, q, r, etc. Stating, in a formal system, that two statements p and q are logically equivalent is basically saying that the terms used in these statements are different but that p and q mean the same thing.

## What are equivalent expressions?

Equivalent expressions. Two mathematical expressions are said to be equivalent if they yield the same result upon solving them. For example, let’s solve the following numerical expressions: 25 × 5 = 125. Also, 10 2 + 5 2 = 100 + 25 =125. Thus, the above two expressions are equivalent and can be written as: 25 × 5 = 10 2 + 5 2

## How do you prove two propositions are logically equivalent?

Two propositions are logically equivalent if they have identical truth values for each possible substitution for their statement variables. Additionally, they are also provable from each other under a set of axioms in any formal deductive system.

## How do you determine the equivalence of two logical statements?

There are two possible ways to examine the equivalence of two logical statements, The first method: is considering the value of the logical statement for every possible input; usually in the form of a truth table.

## What’s a equivalent statement?

Equivalent Statements are statements that are written differently, but hold the same logical equivalence. Case 1: “ If p then q ” has three equivalent statements. a) If it is blue, then it is the sky. It is not blue or it is the sky.

## What are the two equivalent statements?

Two statement forms are logically equivalent if, and only if, their resulting truth tables are identical for each variation of statement variables. p q and q p have the same truth values, so they are logically equivalent.

## How do you know if a pair of statements are equivalent?

0:012:30Logic: Determine if 2 statements are equivalent – YouTubeYouTubeStart of suggested clipEnd of suggested clipIf I looked at the second statement. It. Says you eat will you eat and you will either the sameMoreIf I looked at the second statement. It. Says you eat will you eat and you will either the same thing so that those are both essentially statement Q and you are hungry is repeated in both cases.

## What is logically equivalent to P → Q?

The propositions are equal or logically equivalent if they always have the same truth value. That is, p and q are logically equivalent if p is true whenever q is true, and vice versa, and if p is false whenever q is false, and vice versa. If p and q are logically equivalent, we write p = q.

## Are the statements P → Q ∨ R and P → Q ∨ P → R logically equivalent?

Since columns corresponding to p∨(q∧r) and (p∨q)∧(p∨r) match, the propositions are logically equivalent. This particular equivalence is known as the Distributive Law.

## How do you make an equivalent statement?

Take for example the statement “If is even, then is an integer.” An equivalent statement is “If is not an integer, then is not even.” The original statement had the form “If A, then B” and the second one had the form “If not B, then not A.” (Here A is the statement ” is even”, so “not A” is the statement ” is not even” …

## How we conclude that two statements are equivalent?

In logic, two formulas are logically equivalent if they have the same truth value in every model. For propositional calculus, use truth table.

## Which statement is equivalent with the inverse statement?

If the statement is true, then the contrapositive is also logically true. If the converse is true, then the inverse is also logically true….Converse, Inverse, Contrapositive.StatementIf p , then q .ConverseIf q , then p .InverseIf not p , then not q .ContrapositiveIf not q , then not p .

## What is the equivalent of the statement i ++?

i++ increment the variable i by 1. It is the equivalent to i = i + 1. i– decrements (decreases) the variable i by 1.

## Which is logically equivalent to P ∧ q → R?

(p ∧ q) → r is logically equivalent to p → (q → r).

## Are P → q and P ∨ q logically equivalent?

P→Q is logically equivalent to ⌝P∨Q. So. ⌝(P→Q) is logically equivalent to ⌝(⌝P∨Q). Hence, by one of De Morgan’s Laws (Theorem 2.5), ⌝(P→Q) is logically equivalent to ⌝(⌝P)∧⌝Q.

## What is the equivalent statement of a conditional statement?

A conditional statement is logically equivalent to its contrapositive. Converse: Suppose a conditional statement of the form “If p then q” is given. The converse is “If q then p.” Symbolically, the converse of p q is q p.

## What are the two parts of a conditional statement?

Conditional Statement A conditional statement is a logical statement that has two parts, a hypothesis p and a conclusion q. When a conditional statement is written in if-then form, the “if” part contains the hypothesis and the “then” part contains the conclusion.

## What is the equivalent of the statement i ++?

i++ increment the variable i by 1. It is the equivalent to i = i + 1. i– decrements (decreases) the variable i by 1.

## What is logical equivalence examples?

Now, consider the following statement: If Ryan gets a pay raise, then he will take Allison to dinner. This means we can also say that If Ryan does not take Allison to dinner, then he did not get a pay raise is logically equivalent.

## Is the foot of the altitude from a reflection of over side?

Since now becomes the foot of the altitude from , we have that . Altitude bisects the base, so . This proves that is a reflection of over side .

## Can we have and simultaneously?

First, we can’t have and simultaneously. Otherwise, their sum must be greater than zero as well; but their sum is .

## Is the third and fourth case the same?

The third and fourth cases are the same. For example, and . Then take

## What is equivalent in math?

The term “equivalent” in math refers to two values, numbers or quantities which are the same.

## What are two mathematical expressions equivalent?

Two mathematical expressions are said to be equivalent if they yield the same result upon solving them. For example, let’s solve the following numerical expressions: Thus, the above two expressions are equivalent and can be written as: 25 × 5 = 10 2 + 5 2. Similarly, following two math expressions are also equivalent:

## What is the equivalent symbol in a Venn diagram?

The use of the equivalent symbol (as three bars) is frequently used in Unicode programming for computers, as well as in Boolean algebra. Venn diagrams use the concept of logical equivalence to establish the relationship between two algebraic expressions and functions.

## Who invented the equal sign?

The sign “equals” (=) was invented by a Welsh mathematician Robert Recorde in 1557. Equivalent sign and equivalence of Boolean functions were explained by 19th century mathematician George Boole.

## How many ways can you prove that two statements are logically equivalent?

There are an infinite number of ways to prove that two statements are logically equivalent.

## What is logical equivalence?

In traditional or classical propositional or predicate logic, logical equivalence is synonymous with material equivalence, which basically means the two claims in question have the same truth-value — i.e., they’re both true or both false. In this sense, material or logical equivalence is an assertion about the semantics of the two statements.

## What is the meaning of “if only if”?

The phrase “if and only if” is usually the way material / logical equivalence is expressed in English. The only assumption justified by an assertion of material or logical equivalence is that the two statements are claimed to have the same truth-value.

## What does “neither” mean?

Or: Neither says anything that the other does not. Everything said or implied by one is equally said and implied by the other.

## Can logic be used to falsify prerequisites?

Logic can be used to falsify prerequisites too – if you suppose a prerequisite and the logical outcome, and see the outcome is different, this may show that the presumed prerequisites are at the very least incomplete.

## Is a proposition substitutable?

Lastly, as assertions or propositions, they are substitutable for each other.

## Is a statement true if the result follows the given prerequisites?

Statements are logically true if the result follows the given prerequisites under the assumption mentioned prerequisites are accurate. Bear in mind, this makes for an interesting loophole wherein should the prerequisite be false (even outrageously so), the logic may still be sound, even if you can still judge the whole excercise illogical knowing a fuller extent of the subject. Case en point: