Equivalent Statements
 1. P→Q: If the interior angles of the quadrilateral are 90 o, the quadrilateral is square.
 2. Let the substatements be X: it will rain tomorrow Y: the visit will take place If P 2 is false then X → Y is false. Note the relation “or” which implies both X and Y must be false in order to have X→ Y a false statement. …
What is an example of logically equivalent?
Definition: When two statements have the same exact truth values, they are said to be logically equivalent. Example 2: Construct a truth table for each statement below. Then determine which two are logically equivalent.
Which statement is logically equivalent to the statement PQ?
Therefore, the statement ~pq is logically equivalent to the statement pq. Definition: When two statements have the same exact truth values, they are said to be logically equivalent. Example 2: Construct a truth table for each statement below. Then determine which two are logically equivalent.
What is an equivalent statement of the form?
Therefore, an equivalent statement would be of the form. Hence, we would say, Henry, is a teacher or Paulos is not an accountant. Furthermore, there are times when we would instead state reasons for why two statements are logically equivalent, rather than constructing a truth table.
How do you prove two propositions are logically equivalent?
Two propositions are logically equivalent if they have identical truth values for each possible substitution for their statement variables. Additionally, they are also provable from each other under a set of axioms in any formal deductive system.
What are equivalent statements?
Equivalent Statements are statements that are written differently, but hold the same logical equivalence. Case 1: “ If p then q ” has three equivalent statements. RULE.
How do you know if an equivalent statement?
To test for logical equivalence of 2 statements, construct a truth table that includes every variable to be evaluated, and then check to see if the resulting truth values of the 2 statements are equivalent.
What are the examples of logical equivalence?
Now, consider the following statement: If Ryan gets a pay raise, then he will take Allison to dinner. This means we can also say that If Ryan does not take Allison to dinner, then he did not get a pay raise is logically equivalent.
How do you write an equivalent statement of a conditional statement?
Suppose a conditional statement of the form “If p then q” is given. The converse is “If q then p.” Symbolically, the converse of p q is q p.
Are the statements P ∧ Q ∨ R and P ∧ Q ∨ R logically equivalent?
Since columns corresponding to p∨(q∧r) and (p∨q)∧(p∨r) match, the propositions are logically equivalent. This particular equivalence is known as the Distributive Law.
How do you write a logically equivalent statement?
Two expressions are logically equivalent provided that they have the same truth value for all possible combinations of truth values for all variables appearing in the two expressions. In this case, we write X≡Y and say that X and Y are logically equivalent.
Are P → Q and P ∨ Q logically equivalent?
They are logically equivalent. p ↔ q ≡ (p → q) ∧ (q → p) p ↔ q ≡ ¬p ↔ ¬q p ↔ q ≡ (p ∧ q) ∨ (¬p ∧ ¬q) ¬(p ↔ q) ≡ p ↔ ¬q c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 28 / 37 Page 14 Prove equivalence By using these laws, we can prove two propositions are logical equivalent.
Which is logically equivalent to P ∧ Q → R?
(p ∧ q) → r is logically equivalent to p → (q → r).
Which is logically equivalent to P ↔ Q?
P → Q is logically equivalent to ¬ P ∨ Q . Example: “If a number is a multiple of 4, then it is even” is equivalent to, “a number is not a multiple of 4 or (else) it is even.”
What is equivalent formula?
In predicate logic, two formulas are logically equivalent if they have the same truth value for all possible predicates. Consider ¬(∀xP(x)) and ∃x(¬P(x)). These formulas make sense for any predicate P, and for any predicate P they have the same truth value.
What is an example of a conditional statement?
Example: We have a conditional statement If it is raining, we will not play. Let, A: It is raining and B: we will not play. Then; If A is true, that is, it is raining and B is false, that is, we played, then the statement A implies B is false.
What is the equivalent of the statement i ++?
i++ increment the variable i by 1. It is the equivalent to i = i + 1. i– decrements (decreases) the variable i by 1.
What is an equivalence statement in chemistry?
Equivalence Statements As chemists have different ways of expressing measurements they need to be able to convert between different units. Central to this is the concept of an equivalence statement which says two ways of representing the same thing are equivalent. For example 12 in = 1 foot is an equivalence statement.
What is the equivalent of the statement i ++?
i++ increment the variable i by 1. It is the equivalent to i = i + 1. i– decrements (decreases) the variable i by 1.
Which statement is equivalent with the inverse statement?
If the statement is true, then the contrapositive is also logically true. If the converse is true, then the inverse is also logically true….Converse, Inverse, Contrapositive.StatementIf p , then q .ConverseIf q , then p .InverseIf not p , then not q .ContrapositiveIf not q , then not p .
What is an example of a contrapositive statement?
For example, consider the statement, “If it is raining, then the grass is wet” to be TRUE. Then you can assume that the contrapositive statement, “If the grass is NOT wet, then it is NOT raining” is also TRUE.
What is equivalent in math?
The term “equivalent” in math refers to two values, numbers or quantities which are the same.
What are two mathematical expressions equivalent?
Two mathematical expressions are said to be equivalent if they yield the same result upon solving them. For example, let’s solve the following numerical expressions: Thus, the above two expressions are equivalent and can be written as: 25 × 5 = 10 2 + 5 2. Similarly, following two math expressions are also equivalent:
What is the equivalent symbol in a Venn diagram?
The use of the equivalent symbol (as three bars) is frequently used in Unicode programming for computers, as well as in Boolean algebra. Venn diagrams use the concept of logical equivalence to establish the relationship between two algebraic expressions and functions.
Who invented the equal sign?
The sign “equals” (=) was invented by a Welsh mathematician Robert Recorde in 1557. Equivalent sign and equivalence of Boolean functions were explained by 19th century mathematician George Boole.
Which side of a statement is transformed to match the right side?
In doing so, we transform the lefthand side of the statement to match the righthand side, and we provide reasons for each transformation, similar to constructing a twocolumn proof in geometry. These logic proofs can be tricky at first, and will be discussed in much more detail in our “proofs” unit.
What is a compound proposition that is always false?
A compound proposition that is always false is called a contradiction or absurdity. And a compound proposition that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction is referred to as a contingency.
What is a compound proposition that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction?
And a compound proposition that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction is referred to as a contingency.
Do compound propositions have equivalences?
Similarly, there are some very useful equivalences for compound propositions involving implications and biconditional statements, as seen below.
How many ways can you prove that two statements are logically equivalent?
There are an infinite number of ways to prove that two statements are logically equivalent.
What is logical equivalence?
In traditional or classical propositional or predicate logic, logical equivalence is synonymous with material equivalence, which basically means the two claims in question have the same truthvalue — i.e., they’re both true or both false. In this sense, material or logical equivalence is an assertion about the semantics of the two statements.
What is the meaning of “if only if”?
The phrase “if and only if” is usually the way material / logical equivalence is expressed in English. The only assumption justified by an assertion of material or logical equivalence is that the two statements are claimed to have the same truthvalue.
Can logic be used to falsify prerequisites?
Logic can be used to falsify prerequisites too – if you suppose a prerequisite and the logical outcome, and see the outcome is different, this may show that the presumed prerequisites are at the very least incomplete.
Is a proposition substitutable?
Lastly, as assertions or propositions, they are substitutable for each other.
Is a statement true if the result follows the given prerequisites?
Statements are logically true if the result follows the given prerequisites under the assumption mentioned prerequisites are accurate. Bear in mind, this makes for an interesting loophole wherein should the prerequisite be false (even outrageously so), the logic may still be sound, even if you can still judge the whole excercise illogical knowing a fuller extent of the subject. Case en point:
What is the biconditional of two equivalent statements?
Definition: The biconditional of two equivalent statements is a tautology.
Is QP the same as PQ?
The truth tables above show that ~qp is logically equivalent to pq, since these statements have the same exact truth values. In Example 3, we will place the truth values of these two equivalent statements side by side in the same truth table. We will then examine the biconditional of these statements.
What is equivalent equation?
Equivalent equations are algebraic equations that have identical solutions or roots. Adding or subtracting the same number or expression to both sides of an equation produces an equivalent equation. Multiplying or dividing both sides of an equation by the same nonzero number produces an equivalent equation.
How to solve two equations with two variables?
Start with the first set. To solve two equations with two variables, isolate one variable and plug its solution into the other equation. To isolate the “y” variable:
What happens if both sides of an equation are nonnegative?
If both sides of an equation are non negative, raising both sides of an equation to the same even power or taking the same even root will give an equivalent equation.
What is the difference between the first and second set of equations?
The only difference between the first equation in each set is that the first one is three times the second one (equivalent). The second equation is exactly the same.
Can you use equivalent equations in everyday life?
You can use equivalent equations in daily life. It’s particularly helpful when shopping. For example, you like a particular shirt. One company offers the shirt for $6 and has $12 shipping, while another company offers the shirt for $7.50 and has $9 shipping.
Is it useful to know if an equation is equivalent?
Recognizing these equations are equivalent is great, but not particularly useful . Usually, an equivalent equation problem asks you to solve for a variable to see if it is the same (the same root) as the one in another equation.
Definition of Equivalent
What Is The Meaning of Equivalent in Math?

There are two ways in which one can definean equivalent in math. This is because the term equivalent in mathematical theory is a notion that has multiple meanings. Equivalent means that different terms and expressions with a similar value are considered equal in mathematical form. Equal Vs Equivalent In math, equivalent is different from equal. Equal means same in all aspects…
Solved Examples

Example 1: Two fractions, 35 and 6x, are equivalent. Find the value of x. Solution: Given, 35 = 6x We know that equivalent fractions can be generated by multiplying the numerator and the denominator by the same number. So 35 = 610. Hence, x = 10. Example 2: Check whether 7 × 6 + 66 ÷ 11 – 5 × 2 is equivalent to 7 × 3 + 24 ÷ 2 + 9 × 3 or not. Soluti…
Practice Problems

Conclusion: We have learned about the equivalent and its properties and properties with different examples. We have also solved a few problems that have helped us grasp the concept of equivalent. Hopefully, this will help the kids master the concept to solve different mathematical problems. Teaching math concepts can be challenging, especially when the students are young …