Equivalent Statements are** statements that are written differently, but hold the same logical equivalence**

**
**

## Logical equivalence

In logic, statements p and q are logically equivalent if they have the same logical content. This is a semantic concept; two statements are equivalent if they have the same truth value in every model (Mendelson 1979:56). The logical equivalence of p and q is sometimes expressed as, Epq, or.

. Case 1: “ If p then q ” has three equivalent statements. Statement

**If is not an integer, then is not even**.” The original statement had the form “If A, then B” and the second one had the form “If not B, then not A.” (Here A is the statement ” is even”, so “not A” is the statement ” is not even” …

##
Which statement is logically equivalent to the statement PQ?

Therefore, the statement ~pq is logically equivalent to the statement pq. Definition: When two statements have the same exact truth values, they are said to be logically equivalent. Example 2: Construct a truth table for each statement below. Then determine which two are logically equivalent.

##
What do you mean by logically equivalent?

Definition: When two statements have the same exact truth values, they are said to be logically equivalent. Example 2: Construct a truth table for each statement below.

##
What is the meaning of equivalence?

equiv·a·lent | \i-ˈkwiv-lənt, -ˈkwi-və-\. 1 : equal in force, amount, or value also : equal in area or volume but not superposable a square equivalent to a triangle. 2a : like in signification or import. b : having logical equivalence equivalent statements.

##
What is an equivalent math expression?

Two mathematical expressions are said to be equivalent if they yield the same result upon solving them. For example, let’s solve the following numerical expressions: Thus, the above two expressions are equivalent and can be written as: 25 × 5 = 10 2 + 5 2 Similarly, following two math expressions are also equivalent:

What is logically equivalent statement?

Definition. Two expressions are logically equivalent provided that they have the same truth value for all possible combinations of truth values for all variables appearing in the two expressions. In this case, we write X≡Y and say that X and Y are logically equivalent.

What are the two equivalent statements?

Two statement forms are logically equivalent if, and only if, their resulting truth tables are identical for each variation of statement variables. p q and q p have the same truth values, so they are logically equivalent.

How do you prove a statement is equivalent?

0:102:30Logic: Determine if 2 statements are equivalent – YouTubeYouTubeStart of suggested clipEnd of suggested clipThe two statements are if you are hungry then you will eat and if you eat then you’re hungry. AndMoreThe two statements are if you are hungry then you will eat and if you eat then you’re hungry. And they’re giving us a hint. That maybe it would be helpful to write them in symbolic form first. So I’ll

What is the equivalent of the statement i ++?

i++ increment the variable i by 1. It is the equivalent to i = i + 1. i– decrements (decreases) the variable i by 1.

What is an example of an equivalent statement?

Take for example the statement “If is even, then is an integer.” An equivalent statement is “If is not an integer, then is not even.” The original statement had the form “If A, then B” and the second one had the form “If not B, then not A.” (Here A is the statement ” is even”, so “not A” is the statement ” is not even” …

Are the statements P → Q ∨ R and P → Q ∨ P → R logically equivalent?

Since columns corresponding to p∨(q∧r) and (p∨q)∧(p∨r) match, the propositions are logically equivalent. This particular equivalence is known as the Distributive Law.

Which statement is logically equivalent to Q → P?

A conditional statement is logically equivalent to its contrapositive. Converse: Suppose a conditional statement of the form “If p then q” is given. The converse is “If q then p.” Symbolically, the converse of p q is q p.

Which is logically equivalent to P ↔ Q?

P → Q is logically equivalent to ¬ P ∨ Q . Example: “If a number is a multiple of 4, then it is even” is equivalent to, “a number is not a multiple of 4 or (else) it is even.”

Is P ↔ Q equivalent to P ↔ Q justify?

Namely, p and q are logically equivalent if p ↔ q is a tautology.

What are the two parts of a conditional statement?

Conditional Statement A conditional statement is a logical statement that has two parts, a hypothesis p and a conclusion q. When a conditional statement is written in if-then form, the “if” part contains the hypothesis and the “then” part contains the conclusion.

What is an equivalence statement in chemistry?

Equivalence Statements As chemists have different ways of expressing measurements they need to be able to convert between different units. Central to this is the concept of an equivalence statement which says two ways of representing the same thing are equivalent. For example 12 in = 1 foot is an equivalence statement.

Is P ↔ Q equivalent to P ↔ Q justify?

Namely, p and q are logically equivalent if p ↔ q is a tautology.

Which is logically equivalent to P ↔ Q?

P → Q is logically equivalent to ¬ P ∨ Q . Example: “If a number is a multiple of 4, then it is even” is equivalent to, “a number is not a multiple of 4 or (else) it is even.”

Is the foot of the altitude from a reflection of over side?

Since now becomes the foot of the altitude from , we have that . Altitude bisects the base, so .** This proves that is a reflection of over side . **

Can we have and simultaneously?

First, we** can’t ** have and simultaneously. Otherwise, their sum must be greater than zero as well; but their sum is .

Is the third and fourth case the same?

**The third and fourth cases are the same. ** For example, and . Then take

What is the biconditional of two equivalent statements?

Definition: The biconditional of two equivalent statements is** a tautology. **

Is QP the same as PQ?

The truth tables above show that ~qp is** logically equivalent ** to pq, since these statements have the same exact truth values. In Example 3, we will place the truth values of these two equivalent statements side by side in the same truth table. We will then examine the biconditional of these statements.

What does “equivalent” mean in English?

Middle English, from Middle French or Late Latin; Middle French, from Late Latin aequivalent-, aequivalens, present participle of aequivalēre** to have equal power, ** from Latin aequi- + valēre to be strong — more at wield. Keep scrolling for more. Keep scrolling for more.

Can a patentee bring a claim against an inventor?

Note: Under patent law,** a patentee may bring a claim for infringement against the inventor of an equivalent. **

What is equivalent in math?

The term “equivalent” in math refers to** two values, numbers or quantities which are the same. **

What are two mathematical expressions equivalent?

Two mathematical expressions are said to be** equivalent if they yield the same result upon solving them. ** For example, let’s solve the following numerical expressions: Thus, the above two expressions are equivalent and can be written as: 25 × 5 = 10 2 + 5 2. Similarly, following two math expressions are also equivalent:

What is the equivalent symbol in a Venn diagram?

The use of the equivalent symbol (as** three bars) ** is frequently used in Unicode programming for computers, as well as in Boolean algebra. Venn diagrams use the concept of logical equivalence to establish the relationship between two algebraic expressions and functions.

Who invented the equal sign?

The sign “equals” (=) was invented by a Welsh mathematician** Robert Recorde ** in 1557. Equivalent sign and equivalence of Boolean functions were explained by 19th century mathematician George Boole.

What is equivalent expression calculator?

Equivalent Expression Calculator is** a free online tool that displays the equivalent expressions for the given algebraic expression. ** BYJU’S online equivalent expression calculator tool makes the calculations and simplification faster and it displays the equivalent expression in a fraction of seconds.

What is the equivalent of (3+7)+2?

The expression equivalent to (3+7)+2 is** 12. **

What is the equivalent fraction of 2/3?

For example, if we multiply the numerator and denominator of 2/3 by 4 we get. 2/3 = 2×4 / 3×4 = 8/12 which is an equivalent fraction of 2/3.

What is the difference between independent and dependent variables?

An independent variable is a variable that** stands alone ** and** isn’t affected by any other variables measured. ** On the other hand,** a dependent variable is a variable which is depended on other factors. **

Is 3y+3 a simplified expression?

The expressions 3y+3 and 3 (y+1) are equivalent expressions. Because 3 (y+1) can be** simplified ** as 3y+3.

Logical equivalences

In logic, many common logical equivalences exist and are often listed as laws or properties. The following tables illustrate some of these.

Relation to material equivalence

Logical equivalence is different from material equivalence. Formulas

p {\displaystyle p}

and

q {\displaystyle q}

are logically equivalent if and only if the statement of their material equivalence (

p ⟺ q {\displaystyle p\iff q}

) is a tautology.