 An equivalence relation is a binary relation defined on a set X such that the relation is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
 The equivalence relation divides the set into disjoint equivalence classes.
 All elements belonging to the same equivalence class are equivalent to each other.
What does equivalence relation mean?
In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a relation that, loosely speaking, partitions a set so that every element of the set is a member of one and only one cell of the partition. Two elements of the set are considered equivalent if and only if they are elements of the same cell.
How to prove a relation is an equivalence relation?
 An equivalence relation is a binary relation defined on a set X such that the relation is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
 The equivalence relation divides the set into disjoint equivalence classes.
 All elements belonging to the same equivalence class are equivalent to each other.
Is equality of sets always an equivalence relation?
Equality is a complete order as well as an equivalence relation. Equality is also the only inductive, symmetric, and antisymmetric relation on a set. Equal variables in algebraic expressions can be replaced for one another, a feature not accessible for equivalencerelated variables.
Is this conjugate relation an equivalence relation?
Two elements a and b of a group are conjugate if there exists a third element x such that b = x − 1 a x. To show conjugation is an equivalence relation, you need to show three things about this relation. Reflexivity. First show that every element is conjugate to itself. Let a be an element, and find some element x so that a = x − 1 a x. Symmetry.
What is the formula to find equivalent relation?
Number of equivalence relations or number of partitions is given by S(n,k)=S(n−1,k−1)+kS(n−1,k), where n is the number of elements in a set and k is the number of elements in a subset of partition, with initial condition S(n,1)=S(n,n)=1.
Which is equivalent relation?
In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a kind of binary relation that should be reflexive, symmetric and transitive. The wellknown example of an equivalence relation is the “equal to (=)” relation.
How many equivalence relations are there?
Hence, total 5 equivalence relations can be created.
What is equivalence relation example?
Equivalence relations are often used to group together objects that are similar, or “equiv alent”, in some sense. 2 Examples. Example: The relation “is equal to”, denoted “=”, is an equivalence relation on the set of real numbers since for any x, y, z ∈ R: 1. (Reflexivity) x = x, 2.
What equivalence means?
Definition of equivalence 1a : the state or property of being equivalent. b : the relation holding between two statements if they are either both true or both false so that to affirm one and to deny the other would result in a contradiction. 2 : a presentation of terms as equivalent.
How many equivalence relations are possible on the set A ={ 1 2 3 }?
two possible relationHence, only two possible relation are there which are equivalence.
What are the properties of equivalence relation?
Equivalence relations are relations that have the following properties: They are reflexive: A is related to A. They are symmetric: if A is related to B, then B is related to A. They are transitive: if A is related to B and B is related to C then A is related to C.
What is an equivalence class example?
Examples of Equivalence Classes If X is the set of all integers, we can define the equivalence relation ~ by saying ‘a ~ b if and only if ( a – b ) is divisible by 9’. Then the equivalence class of 4 would include 32, 23, 14, 5, 4, 13, 22, and 31 (and a whole lot more).
What is an equivalence class example?
Examples of Equivalence Classes If X is the set of all integers, we can define the equivalence relation ~ by saying ‘a ~ b if and only if ( a – b ) is divisible by 9’. Then the equivalence class of 4 would include 32, 23, 14, 5, 4, 13, 22, and 31 (and a whole lot more).
What is transitive relation example?
Examples of Transitive Relations ‘Is a biological sibling’ is a transitive relation as if one person A is a biological sibling of another person B, and B is a biological sibling of C, then A is a biological sibling of C. ‘Is less than’ is a transitive relation defined on a set of numbers.
Which equivalence relations are functions?
Definition. A function f : A → B is said to be compatible with an equivalence relation R on A if: (∀x, y ∈ A)(xRy → f(x) = f(y)).
Which of the following is an equivalence relation on R for a B ∈ Z?
8. Which of the following is an equivalence relation on R, for a, b ∈ Z? Explanation: Let a ∈ R, then a−a = 0 and 0 ∈ Z, so it is reflexive. To see that ab ∈ Z is symmetric, then a−b ∈ Z > say, a−b = m, where m ∈ Z ⇒ b−a = −(a−b)=−m and −m ∈ Z.
How to find equivalence?
Equivalence relations can be explained in terms of the following examples: 1 The sign of ‘is equal to (=)’ on a set of numbers; for example, 1/3 = 3/9. 2 For a given set of triangles, the relation of ‘is similar to (~)’ and ‘is congruent to (≅)’ shows equivalence. 3 For a given set of integers, the relation of ‘congruence modulo n (≡)’ shows equivalence. 4 The image and domain are the same under a function, shows the relation of equivalence. 5 For a set of all angles, ‘has the same cosine’. 6 For a set of all real numbers,’ has the same absolute value’.
What is the relation R on set A?
In mathematics, the relation R on set A is said to be an equivalence relation, if the relation satisfies the properties , such as reflexive property, transitive property, and symmetric property.
What is reflexive relation?
Reflexive: A relation is said to be reflexive, if (a, a) ∈ R, for every a ∈ A.
What is R in math?
R = { (a, b):ab is even }. Where a, b belongs to A
What is the sign of “is equal to”?
The sign of ‘is equal to (=)’ on a set of numbers; for example, 1/3 = 3/9.
Is xy a transitive property?
Transitive: Consider x and y belongs to R, xFy and yFz. Therefore xy and yz are integers. According to the transitive property, ( x – y ) + ( y – z ) = x – z is also an integer. So that xFz.
Is an empty relation an equivalence relation?
We can say that the empty relation on the empty set is considered an equivalence relation. But, the empty relation on the nonempty set is not considered as an equivalence relation.
What is the fundamental idea of equivalence relations?
This unique idea of classifying them together that “look different but are actually the same” is the fundamental idea of equivalence relations. Distribution of a set S is either a finite or infinite collection of a nonempty and mutually disjoint subset whose union is S.
How to prove that R is an equivalence relation?
To prove that R is an equivalence relation, we have to show that R is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive.
What does “reflexive” mean?
But what does reflexive, symmetric, and transitive mean? Reflexive: A relation is supposed to be reflexive, if (a, a) ∈ R, for every a ∈ A. Symmetric: A relation is supposed to be symmetric, if (a, b) ∈ R, then (b, a) ∈ R.
What is transitive property?
Transitive Property : If ab is even, then (ab) is even.
What is ab in math?
ab = ab for all the positive integers.
Do fractions have many equivalent forms?
We all have learned about fractions in our childhood and if we have then it is not unknown to us that every fraction has many equivalent forms. Let us take an example,
Is the symmetric property proven?
Consequently, the symmetric property is also proven.
What is Equivalence Relation?
An equivalence relation is a binary relation defined on a set X such that the relation is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. If any of the three conditions (reflexive, symmetric and transitive) does not hold, the relation cannot be an equivalence relation. The equivalence relation divides the set into disjoint equivalence classes.
Proof of Equivalence Relation
To understand how to prove if a relation is an equivalence relation, let us consider an example. Define a relation R on the set of natural numbers N as (a, b) ∈ R if and only if a = b. Now, we will show that the relation R is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
Definitions Related to Equivalence Relation
Now, we will understand the meaning of some terms related to equivalence relation such as equivalence class, partition, quotient set, etc. Consider an equivalence relation R defined on set A with a, b ∈ A.
Examples on Equivalence Relation
Example 1: Define a relation R on the set S of symmetric matrices as (A, B) ∈ R if and only if A = B T. Show that R is an equivalence relation.
FAQs on Equivalence Relation
An equivalence relation is a binary relation defined on a set X such that the relations are reflexive, symmetric and transitive. If any of the three conditions (reflexive, symmetric and transitive) does not hold, the relation cannot be an equivalence relation.
What is an equivalence relation?
An equivalence relation, ~, is a relation between members, a, b, and c, of a set X such that it meets the following criteria.
What does it mean when two equivalence classes are equal?
This implies that either the sets are exactly the same , or have nothing in common . We have established the result.
What is an equivalence class in a digraph?
An equivalence class in the set of vertices of a digraph with the strongly connected relation is the set of all vertices strongly connected to a given vertex u. This equivalence class is called a strongly connected component. In Figure 2, the equivalence classes with the strongly connected relation between u, v, and w are shown in purple. Since the directed edges that go to the green vertices lead away from the purple ones, the purple vertices are not strongly connected to the green ones.
What is a strongly connected relation?
Each component is disjoint from the others. The edges are not part of the set. The equivalence relation on the set of vertices of a digraph is called the strongly connected relation.
What is a relation?
But what exactly is a “relation”? Formally, a relation is a collection of ordered pairs of objects from a set. As far as equivalence relations are concerned, two objects are related because they share a common property. So an equivalence relation is a more general form of equality that deals with sets of objects that have some property in common.
What happens if you are strongly connected to v and v is strongly connected to w?
If u is strongly connected to v and v is strongly connected to w, then u is strongly connected to w.
Do equivalence classes have a nice property?
Now, equivalence classes have a nice property. Let us consider two equivalence classes, [ a] and [ b ], with the same equivalence relation over the same set and generated by the objects a and b respectively. It can be shown that either [ a] and [ b] are the same, or they have no elements in common.
Equivalence Relation Definition

A relation R on a set A is said to be an equivalence relationif and only if the relation R is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. The equivalence relation is a relationship on the set which is generally represented by the symbol “∼”. Reflexive: A relation is said to be reflexive, if (a, a) ∈ R, for every a ∈ A. Symmetric: A relation is said to be …
Equivalence Relation Proof

Here is an equivalence relation example to prove the properties. Let us assume that R be a relation on the set of ordered pairs of positive integers such that ((a, b), (c, d))∈ R if and only if ad=bc. Is R an equivalence relation? In order to prove that R is an equivalence relation, we must show that R is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. The Proof for the given condition is given belo…
Equivalence Relation Examples

Go through the equivalence relation examples and solutions provided here Question 1: Let us assume that F is a relation on the set R real numbers defined by xFy if and only if xy is an integer. Prove that F is an equivalence relation on R. Solution: Reflexive: Consider x belongs to R,then x – x = 0 which is an integer. Therefore xFx. Symmetric: Consider x and y belongs to Rand xFy. Then x …
Solved Examples of Equivalence Relation

1. Let us consider that F is a relation on the set R real numbers that are defined by xFy on a condition if xy is an integer. Prove F as an equivalence relation on R. Reflexive property: Assume that x belongs to R, and, x – x = 0 which is an integer. Thus, xFx. Symmetric Property:Assume that x and y belongs to R and xFy. And x – y is an integer. Therefore, y – x = – ( x – y), y – x is too an i…
Connection of Equivalence Relation to Other Relations
 An incomplete order is a reciprocal, system can be classified, and linear relation.
 Equality is a complete order as well as an equivalence relation.
 Equality is also the only inductive, symmetric, and antisymmetric relation on a set.
 Equal variables in algebraic expressions can be replaced for one another, a feature not accessible for equivalencerelated variables.
A Few Key Points to Remember

i) Equations with similar solutions or bases are known as equivalent equations. ii) An analogous equation is created by adding or subtracting the identical number or phrase to both sides of an equation. iii) An analogous equation is created by multiplying or dividing both sides of an equation by the same nonzero value.
Conclusion

The primary focus lies in conceptual understanding and one who has mastered that art is sure to succeed. Practice sums after going through the concept for a better understanding of the topic. Equivalence relations can be a tricky affair if not practiced again and again.