What are equivalent or equal area projections?
Projections which preserve areas are called equivalent or equalarea projections. A map projection either preserves areas everywhere, or distorts it everywhere. This is an allornothing property. Form — Some projections distort the “form” of features (e.g., Azimuthal Equidistant)
What is the difference between a conformal and equivalent map projection?
On a conformal map projection the local shape of the maps features are preserved, the lines of longitude and latitude meet at right angles. On an equivalent map projection preserves the area of features on the map. Wiki User ∙ 20110216 03:39:38
What is the use of equidistant projection?
Equidistant projections are often useful as they maintain distance relationships. However, they do not maintain distance at all points across the map. Instead, an equidistant projection displays the true distance from one or two points on the map (dependent on the projection) to any other point on the map or along specific lines.
What is the difference between Mercator projection and equal area projection?
The Mercator projection doesn’t preserve area correctly, especially as you get closer to the poles. On the other hand, one kind of projection that doesn’t distort area is the Cylindrical Equal Area.
What is an example of an equivalent projection?
In an equal area projection, Tissot circles are all the same relative size across the map. Despite how the Tissot indicatrix changes from a circle to an ellipse, this projection retains relative size.
What are the four types of projection?
Each of the main projection types—conic, cylindrical, and planar—are illustrated below.Conic (tangent) A cone is placed over a globe. … Conic (secant) A cone is placed over a globe but cuts through the surface. … Cylindrical aspects. A cylinder is placed over a globe. … Planar aspects. … Polar aspect (different perspectives)
What is an equivalent map projection?
An equal area projection is a map projection that shows regions that are the same size on the Earth the same size on the map but may distort the shape, angle, and/or scale. This Mollewide Projection map correctly shows the areas of features with relation to each other but distorts the shapes of features.
What are the 3 types of map projections?
Conceptually, there are three types of surfaces that a map can be projected onto: a cylinder, a cone, and a plane. Each of these surfaces can be laid flat without distortion. Projections based on each surface can be used for mapping particular parts of the world.
What is the 2 types of projection?
Projection are defined as mapping of threedimensional points to a twodimensional plane. There are two type of projection parallel and perspective.
What are the 5 most common map projections?
IntroductionProjectionTypeKey virtuesStereographicazimuthalconformalLambert Conformal ConicconicconformalMercatorcylindricalconformal and true directionRobinsonpseudocylindricalall attributes are distorted to create a ‘more pleasant’ appearance1 more row
What are equivalent maps used for?
Equivalent projections are widely used for thematic maps showing scenario distribution such as population, farmland distribution, forested areas, etc.
What property does an equivalent map projection preserve?
areal relationshipsEquivalent. Equivalent projections preserve areal relationships. This means that comparisons between sizes of landmasses (e.g., North America vs. Australia) can be properly made on equal area maps.
What are the 4 main map projection properties?
These map projection properties are area, shape, distance, and direction. These four map projection properties described for facets of a map projection that can either be held true, or be distorted. Of the four projection properties, area and shape are considered major properties and are mutually exclusive.
What are the types of projection?
Table of projectionsYearProjectionType1745Cassini = Cassini–SoldnerCylindrical1569Mercator = WrightCylindrical2005Web MercatorCylindrical1822Gauss–Krüger = Gauss conformal = (ellipsoidal) transverse MercatorCylindrical58 more rows
What’s the best map projection?
AuthaGraph. This is handsdown the most accurate map projection in existence. In fact, AuthaGraph World Map is so proportionally perfect, it magically folds it into a threedimensional globe. Japanese architect Hajime Narukawa invented this projection in 1999 by equally dividing a spherical surface into 96 triangles.
What is the most common map projection?
1. Mercator. This projection was developed by Gerardus Mercator back in 1569 for navigational purposes. Its ability to represent lines of constant course from coast to coast made it the perfect map for sailing the seas.
What are the types of projection?
Table of projectionsYearProjectionType1745Cassini = Cassini–SoldnerCylindrical1569Mercator = WrightCylindrical2005Web MercatorCylindrical1822Gauss–Krüger = Gauss conformal = (ellipsoidal) transverse MercatorCylindrical58 more rows
Why are there so many different types of projections?
We have many different map projections because each has different patterns of distortion—there is more than one way to flatten an orange peel. Some projections can even preserve certain features of the Earth without distorting them, though they can’t preserve everything.
What are the types of plane of projection?
Figure 54 shows the three principal (or primary) planes of projection, known as the VERTICAL, HORIZONTAL, and PROFILE PLANES. The angles formed between the horizontal and the vertical planes are called the FIRST, SECOND, THIRD, and FOURTH ANGLES, as indicated in the figure.
What are different types of projection in Computer Graphics?
3D Computer GraphicsParallel Projection. Parallel projection discards zcoordinate and parallel lines from each vertex on the object are extended until they intersect the view plane. … Orthographic Projection. … Oblique Projection. … Isometric Projections. … Perspective Projection. … Translation.
WORDS RELATED TO EQUIVALENT PROJECTION
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equalarea projection
Roget’s 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition Copyright © 2013 by the Philip Lief Group.
What is equal area projection?
The equalarea projection retains the relative size of the area throughout a map. So that means at any given region in a map, an equalarea projection keeps the true size of features. While equalarea projections preserve area, it distorts shape, angles and cannot be conformal.
When was the map projection invented?
H. C. Albers first introduced this map projection in 1805 with two standard parallels (secant). Since then, cartographers have used it for displaying large countries that require equalarea representation
Is direction equidistant or conformal?
Although the direction is reasonably accurate, it’s not conformal, perspective, or equidistant.
Is Eckert 2 projection equal to area projection?
From the illustrations (pictures) it seems that the Eckert2 projection is not an Equal Area Projection. As Antarctica is vastly larger in proportion to it’s actual size.
What is equivalent projection?
Equivalent projections preserve areal relationships. This means that comparisons between sizes of landmasses (e.g., North America vs. Australia) can be properly made on equal area maps. Unfortunately, when areal relationships are maintained, shapes of landmasses will inevitably be distorted—it is impossible to maintain both.
What are the projections on maps?
These include equivalent projections (which preserve areal relationships), conformal projections (angular relationships), azimuthal projections (directional relationships), and equidistant projections (distance relationships). The projection you choose will depend on the characteristics most important to be preserved, given the purpose of your map.
What is a Gnomonic Map Projection?
The gnomonic map projection has the interesting property that any straight line drawn on the projection is a great circle route. The gnomonic projection is an example of an azimuthal projection.
Why are equidistant projections useful?
Equidistant projections are often useful as they maintain distance relationships. However, they do not maintain distance at all points across the map. Instead, an equidistant projection displays the true distance from one or two points on the map (dependent on the projection) to any other point on the map or along specific lines.
How do conformal projections preserve local angles?
Though the scale factor (map scale) changes across the map, from any point on the map, the scale factor changes at the same rate in all directions , therefore maintaining angular relationships. If a surveyor were to determine an angle between two locations on Earth’s surface, it would match the angle shown between those same two locations on a conformal projection.
What is the shortest path between two points on Earth?
The shortest point between two points on Earth is called a great circle route. Unlike rhumb lines, such lines appear curved on a conformal projection (Figure 5.5.4). Of course, the literal shortest path from Providence to Rome is actually a straight line: but you’d have to travel beneath Earth’s surface to travel it.
Why is the mercator useful?
demonstrates this effect. Despite this, the Mercator is useful for some purposes. It has historically been used for navigation—it is efficient for routing as any straight line drawn on the map represents a route with a constant compass bearing (e.g., due West).
Why does an equirectangular projection look like it’s the same length?
But on an Equirectangular projection, both of those trips looks like they’re the same length, because this is a projection that does not preserve distance. On the other hand, the Azimuthal Equidistant projection shows distances in the correct proportion. There’s a catch, though.
Why do we have different map projections?
We have many different map projections because each has different patterns of distortion— there is more than one way to flatten an orange peel. Some projections can even preserve certain features of the Earth without distorting them, though they can’t preserve everything.
What are some examples of compromise projections?
The Robinson projection is one example of a compromise projection:
What is azimuthal projection?
When a projection preserves great circle routes as straight lines, we call it an azimuthal projection. Unfortunately, much like the equidistant projections, it only works for one point at a time. In the Stereographic above, the projection is centered on New York. Only straight lines coming into or going out of New York will be great circles. A straight line between Madrid and Casablanca won’t be.
Why are compromise projections good?
Compromise projections spread the distortion around somewhat evenly. The plus side of this is that no place gets ridiculously distorted. This is what makes compromise projections good for world maps. The downside is that there’s no longer a special area that has almost no distortion, like you might find on most other projections. This is why compromise projections should not be used for making maps of continents, countries, or most anything that’s not the whole Earth. Compromise projections spread the distortion more evenly throughout the world, but if you’re not showing the whole world, you don’t need to make the lowdistortion areas of the map worse just so the highdistortion areas (which are off the edge of your map) are better.
How to flatten the Earth?
It’s impossible to flatten the Earth without distorting it in some fashion. Consider an orange peel: if you want to try and lay it flat, you have to stretch it, squash it, and tear it. Likewise with the Earth—if we want to make a map, we need to distort the Earth’s surface to flatten it. The good news is that map projections allow us to distort systematically; we know exactly how things are being stretched or squashed at any given point. We have many different map projections because each has different patterns of distortion—there is more than one way to flatten an orange peel. Some projections can even preserve certain features of the Earth without distorting them, though they can’t preserve everything.
What coordinates do you need for projection?
If your projection requires a center longitude and/or a center latitude, enter coordinates that are in the center of the area you’re mapping. As in the above example, you’ll be setting it so that the projection minimizes distortions in the area you’re mapping.
What is projection formulated as?
The projection is formulated as the equations
What projections were used in the Natural Earth projection?
A combination of Putniņš P4ʹ and Eckert IV projections was used as the basis.
Why was the GallPeters projection created?
According to the creators, the projection was created in response to the decision of the Boston public schools to adopt the GallPeters projection for world maps in March 2017, to accurately show the relative sizes of equatorial and nonequatorial regions.
Who invented the equal Earth projection?
The Equal Earth map projection is an equalarea pseudocylindrical projection for world maps, invented by Bojan Šavrič, Bernhard Jenny, and Tom Patterson in 2018. It is inspired by the widely used Robinson projection, but unlike the Robinson projection, retains the relative size of areas.
What is the 15° graticule?
Equal Earth projection. 15° graticule. Imagery is a derivative of NASA’s Blue Marble summer month composite with oceans lightened to enhance legibility and contrast. Image created with the Geocart map projection software.
What is a conical projection?
In standard presentation, conic (or conical) projections map meridians as straight lines, and parallels as arcs of circles. In standard presentation, pseudoconical projections represent the central meridian as a straight line, other meridians as complex curves, and parallels as circular arcs.
Which projections map the equator and central meridian?
In standard presentation, pseudoazimuthal projections map the equator and central meridian to perpendicular, intersecting straight lines. They map parallels to complex curves bowing away from the equator, and meridians to complex curves bowing in toward the central meridian. Listed here after pseudocylindrical as generally similar to them in shape and purpose.
What is the standard parallel at 33°45′N/S?
Standard parallels at 33°45′N/S; parallels are unequal in spacing and scale; meridians are fourthorder curves. Distortionfree only where the standard parallels intersect the central meridian.
What is the Aspect ratio of Lambert equal area?
Horizontally compressed version of the Lambert equalarea. Standard parallels at 45°N/S. Aspect ratio of ~1.6. Similar is Balthasart projection with standard parallels at 50°N/S.
Is a parallel a semicircle?
Parallels are unequal in spacing and scale; outer meridians are semicircles; other meridians are semiellipses.
Is there a limit to the number of map projections?
Because there is no limit to the number of possible map projections, there can be no comprehensive list.
Is all distances from one point correct?
All distances from one (or two) points are correct. Other equidistant properties are mentioned in the notes.
Equal Area Projection Maps Advantages and Examples
Examples of Equal Area Projection Maps

As shown in the examples below, equalarea projection maps preserve the size of features true to their real area. For example, keep an eye on how Greenland retains its true size of the area throughout each map. 5. Bonne But if you look at a Mercator projection mapbelow, Greenland becomes abnormally large due to its distortion in the area at the poles. And Antarctica looks lik…
USGS Uses The Albers Equal Area Conic Projection

The USGScommonly uses the Albers Equal Area Conic projection because of how it proportionally represents areas for the conterminous United States. H. C. Albers first introduced this map projection in 1805 with two standard parallels (secant). Since then, cartographers have used itfor displaying large countries that require equalarea representation Like all map projections, the Al…
Tissot Circles and Distortion

In an equal area projection, Tissot circles are all the same relative size across the map. Despite how the Tissot indicatrix changes from a circle to an ellipse, this projection retains relative size. So now you have an idea of how equal area projections work, we have a section entirely dedicated to the types of distortionsfound in maps. Also, we’ve explained developable surfaces like cones, …