# Equivalent dose

## What is difference between absorbed dose and dose equivalent?

Absorbed dose tells us the energy deposit in a small volume of tissue. Equivalent dose addresses the impact that the type of radiation has on that tissue. Because all radiation used in diagnostic medicine has the same low-harm potential, the absorbed dose and the equivalent dose are numerically the same.

## What is human equivalent dose?

The human equivalent dose (HED) or human equivalent concentration (HEC) is the quantity of a chemical that, when administered to humans, produces an effect equal to that produced in test animals by a smaller dose. Calculating the HED is a step in carrying out a clinical trial of a pharmaceutical drug.

## What is a dozen equivalent to?

Definition: A dozen dozen is also known as a gross, refers to a group of 144 items. Shabana bought 16 dozen ball pens and sold then at a loss equal to S.P. 3 dozen eggs x  = 3 dozen eggs. .. How to solve this question related to arithmetic progression? 576.

## How do you calculate effective dose?

• Determine the dosage of the medication. Let’s say the appropriate dosage of the active substance is 2 mg/kg of body weight.
• Weigh yourself. …
• Multiply these two values to get the dose of medication in mg: 2 * 80 = 160 mg. …
• What if your medication is liquid? …
• Divide the dose by the medicine concentration to obtain the liquid dose: 160 / 2 = 80 ml.

## What is equivalent dose?

Equivalent dose (symbol HT) is a dose quantity calculated for individual organs (index T – tissue). Equivalent dose is based on the absorbed dose to an organ, adjusted to account for the effectiveness of the type of radiation. Equivalent dose is given the symbol H T. The SI unit of HT is the sievert (Sv) or but rem (roentgen equivalent man) is still commonly used ( 1 Sv = 100 rem ). Unit of sievert was named after the Swedish scientist Rolf Sievert, who did a lot of the early work on dosimetry in radiation therapy.

## What is the equivalent of a joule of gamma rays energy in a kilogram of?

Sievert. The sievert is a derived unit of equivalent dose and effective dose and for represents the equivalent biological effect of the deposit of a joule of gamma rays energy in a kilogram of human tissue.

## How many joules are in one Sv?

A dose of one Sv caused by gamma radiation is equivalent to an energy deposition of one joule in a kilogram of a tissue. That means one sievert is equivalent to one gray of gamma rays deposited in certain tissue. On the other hand, similar biological damage (one sievert) can be caused only by 1/20 gray of alpha radiation.

## What is the SI unit of HT?

The SI unit of HT is the sievert (Sv) or but rem (roentgen equivalent man) is still commonly used ( 1 Sv = 100 rem ). Unit of sievert was named after the Swedish scientist Rolf Sievert, who did a lot of the early work on dosimetry in radiation therapy.

## What does REM stand for in medicine?

REM. The rem (an abbreviation for R oentgen E quivalent M an) is the non-SI unit of the equivalent dose, which is used predominantly in the USA. It is a term for dose equivalence and equals the biological damage that would be caused by one rad of dose.

## Is radiation proportional to biological effects?

It would certainly simplify matters if biological effects of radiation were directly proportional to the absorbed dose. Unfortunately, biological effects depend also on the way in which the absorbed dose is distributed along the path of the radiation.

## Is a Sievert a physical unit?

The radiation weighting factor causes that the sievert cannot be a physical unit.

## What is equivalent dose?

Equivalent dose (symbol HT) is a measure of the radiation dose to tissue where an attempt has been made to allow for the different relative biological effects of different types of ionizing radiation. In quantitative terms, equivalent dose is less fundamental than absorbed dose, but it is more biologically significant.

## How to calculate equivalent dose?

Equivalent dose ( HT) is calculated by multiplying the absorbed dose to the organ or tissue ( DT) with the radiation weighting factor, wR. This factor is dependent on the type and energy of the incident radiation. The value of wR is 1 for x-rays, gamma rays and beta particles, but higher for protons ( wR = 5), neutrons ( wR is between 5 and 20 depending on energy), alpha particles and heavy fragments ( wR = 20) etc.

## How to calculate dose equivalent?

Dose equivalent (or effective dose) is calculated as follows: Dose equivalent= (Absorbed dose)× (weighting factor or RBE). Recommended weighting factors are approximately 1 for x-rays, gamma rays, beta particles, and electrons, and 20 for conventional neutrons (>0.1–2 MeV), protons, alpha particles and charged particles of unknown energy. As an example, the weighting factor or RBE of plutonium-238 ( 238 Pu) is between 10 and 30; thus, the roentgen equivalent in humans (rem) is 10–30 roentgens in air (rad). Similarly, the dose equivalent following alpha emission is larger than the absorbed dose, which is confined to an immensely small area in human tissue because alpha irradiation travels only a short distance in tissue and has a high LET.

## Why is equivalent dose used in diagnostic medicine?

The equivalent dose is used to assess how much biological damage is expected from the absorbed dose of certain type of radiation. Because all radiation used in diagnostic medicine has the same low-harm potential, the equivalent dose in Sv is numerically equal to the absorbed dose in Gy.

## How much amrinone is equivalent to milrinone?

Pharmacokinetics. The dose equivalent of amrinone is 15 to 20 times that of milrinone. For infants and children, the loading dose of amrinone is 1 to 3 mg/kg followed by an infusion at 5 to 15 mcg/ kg/min, 130 while the loading dose for milrinone is 50 mcg/kg with an infusion at 0.5 to 1 mcg/kg/min.

## How much HED is safe?

The human equivalent dose for a reasonably predictable antihyperglycemic effect averages to 422 mg/kg/day based on five animal studies listed in Table 44.2. The estimated HED is reasonably safe with respect to NOAEL in a 90-day toxicity study in rats ( Muralidhara et al., 1999 ); however, the dose calculates to approximately 25 g/day for a 60-kg person. The dose of 25 g/day or higher has been used in some of the clinical trials listed in Table 44.1, but only as a part of the main food (Indian flat bread). This is not a practical way for dosing a nutraceutical or a pharmaceutical product. The commonly used oral dosage forms for better compliance are tablets or capsules. Too many of the tablets or capsules would be needed per day for a dose of 25 g/day. A lower dosage of 5 g/day or less used in some of the clinical trials ( Table 44.1) seem to have contributed to the less than optimal, inconsistent, and variable hypoglycemic effect as observed in the clinical trials. This is an area that needs improvement and refinement for fenugreek to be a consistently effective and successful nutraceutical and for dependable management of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. Few proposals that may help overcome this gap and possibly lower the clinically effective dose are:

## What is the RBE of radiation with a high LET?

Radiation with high LET will be expected to have an RBE of greater than 1. For beta and gamma radiation, the dose equivalent (1 rem or 1,000 mrem) is the same as 1 rad of the absorbed dose, but is larger than the absorbed dose for alpha and neutron radiation, as these types of radiation are more damaging to the human body.

## What is the equivalent dose of radiation?

The equivalent dose (HT) is used to compare the biologic effects of different types of radiation on a tissue or organ. Particulate types of radiation have a high LET and are more damaging to tissue than radiation with low LET, such as x rays. This relative biologic effectiveness of different types of radiation is called the radiation-weighting factor (W R ). For instance, deposition of 1 Gy of high-energy protons causes five times as much damage as 1 Gy of x-ray photons. The W R of photons, the reference, is 1. The W R of 5-keV neutrons and high-energy protons is 5, and the W R of α particles is 20. To account for this difference, the H T is computed as the product of the absorbed dose (D T) averaged over a tissue or organ and the W R:

## Is the dose equivalent of alpha emission larger than the absorbed dose?

Similarly, the dose equivalent following alpha emission is larger than the absorbed dose, which is confined to an immensely small area in human tissue because alpha irradiation travels only a short distance in tissue and has a high LET.

## What is equivalent dose?

Equivalent dose (symbol HT) is a dose quantity calculated for individual organs (index T – tissue). Equivalent dose is based on the absorbed dose to an organ, adjusted to account for the effectiveness of the type of radiation. Equivalent dose is given the symbol H T. The SI unit of HT is the sievert (Sv) or but rem (roentgen equivalent man) is still commonly used ( 1 Sv = 100 rem ). The weighted dose was designated as the organ- or tissue equivalent dose:

## What is the unit of measurement for radiation?

In conventional units, it is measured in mSv/sec, Sv/hr, mrem/sec or rem/hr. Since the amount of radiation exposure depends directly (linearly) on the time people spend near the source of radiation, the absorbed dose is equal to the strength of the radiation field (dose rate) multiplied by the length of time spent in that field. The example above indicates a person could expect to receive a dose of 25 millirems by staying in a 50 millirems/hour field for thirty minutes.

## How many joules are in one Sv?

A dose of one Sv caused by gamma radiation is equivalent to an energy deposition of one joule in a kilogram of a tissue. That means one sievert is equivalent to one gray of gamma rays deposited in certain tissue. On the other hand, similar biological damage (one sievert) can be caused only by 1/20 gray of alpha radiation.

## How much energy does one sievert absorb?

One sievert is a large amount of equivalent dose. A person who has absorbed a whole body dose of 1 Sv has absorbed one joule of energy in each kg of body tissue (in case of gamma rays).

## What is the peak of Ba-137m?

About 94.6 percent decays by beta emission to a metastable nuclear isomer of barium: barium-137m. The main photon peak of Ba-137m is 662 keV. For this calculation, assume that all decays go through this channel.

## What is the unit of equivalent radiation?

The unit of equivalent dose is the sievert.

## Is equivalent dose bad for pregnant women?

An equivalent dose is not in itself going to pose a problem to a pregnant woman or to her developing child.

## from Absorbed Dose to Equivalent Dose

Note that the sievert is not a physical dose unit. For example, an absorbed dose of 1 Gy by alpha particles will lead to an equivalent dose of 20 Sv. This may seem to be a paradox. It implies that the energy of the incident radiation field in joules has increased by a factor of 20, thereby violating the laws of Conservation of energy. …

## Examples of Doses in Sieverts

• We must note thatradiationis all around us. In, around, and above the world we live in. It is a natural energy force that surrounds us. It is a part of our natural world that has been here since the birth of our planet. In the following points we try to express enormous ranges of radiation exposure, which can be obtained from various sources. 1. 0.05 µSv– Sleeping next to someone …